What is Geography? Geography is the study of the earth and the way people live on it and use it.
Geography: Defining the Discipline • Geographia (Greek origins) • Geo (earth) + graphein (to describe or write) • To write or describe the surface of the earth • The study of the spatial arrangement and association among elements on and/or in contact with the earth’s surface • Explaining the “big picture”
Geography: Defining the Discipline • Three defining questions… • What is located where? • Why are things located where they are? • What is the significance?
The Geographic Perspective • Understanding the ways in which humankind perceives and interacts with the Earth’s surface, its resources, and its people • Geography lies at the intersection of both social and physical sciences • Explain the processes that give rise to spatial distributions---it’s not all about maps! • Geographic landscapes are social creations
The Geographer’s Perspective • From Greek term geographia • “To describe the earth” • Look at use of space • Methods • Maps • Atlases, books, electronic media • Imagery (photos, etc) • Five themes
THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY • Location • Place • Human-Environment Interaction • Movement • Regions
Theme 1: Location Two Types of Location • Absolute • Relative • Where is It? • Why is It There?
Theme One: Location 1) Location: the meaning of relative and absolute position on the earth's surface • Sample terms: Latitude and longitude, site and situation, direction, distance, scale • Skills: Map reading, identification • Questions: Where is ____? Where is ____ relative to where I am?
LOCATIONWhere are we? • Absolute Location • A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location). • Paris France is 48o North Latitude and 2o East Longitude. • The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. • Relative Location • Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another. • Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block. You are Here
Absolute Location • A specific place on the Earth’s surface • Uses a grid system • Latitude and longitude • A global address
Location • Absolute • Grid system • Imaginary lines • Hemispheres by • Equator • Prime meridian • Parallels of latitude • Equator is zero • Location N or S of zero • Aka “parallels”
North Carolina Absolute Location • North Carolina 36° N Latitude 79° W longitude • Chapel Hill 35° 55' N Latitude 79° 05' W Longitude
Absolute Location • Examples: • Rome is located at 41 N, 12 E • Argentina is located in the southern hemisphere • Ecuador is located in Tropic of Cancer. • LNE is located in Lincoln, NE.
Relative Location • Where a place is in relation to another place • Uses directional words to describe • Cardinal and intermediate directions
North Carolina • North Carolina is bordered by Virginia on the north, South Carolina and Georgia on the south, and Tennessee on the west. • The Atlantic Ocean forms North Carolina's east coast. • North Carolina is one of the Southeastern States
Relative Location • Examples: • Rome is located near the Mediterranean Sea. • Argentina is near Brazil. • Ecuador is south of Mexico. • Lincoln is 50 miles from Omaha.
Theme Two: Place 2) Place: the distinctive and distinguishing physical and human characteristics of locales • Sample terms: Physical and cultural landscapes, sense of place • Skills: Description, compare and contrast • Questions: What does ____ look like? Why? How is it different from ____?
PLACE What is it like there, what kind of place is it? Physical Characteristics Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegitation, wildlife, soil, etc. • Human Characteristics • What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs. • How many people live, work, and visit a place.
Physical Characteristics • Specific to THAT place, not generic. • The way a place looks. • Created by nature. • Mountains • Rivers, Lakes, Seas • Climate • Vegetation • Examples: • Andes Mountains are in South America. • Amazon River flows through Brazil. • Pampas are located in Argentina. • The isthmus of Panama connects Central & South America.
Cultural Characteristics • Specific to THAT place, not generic. • Peoples activities change the way a place looks or is represented. • Man-made or invented. • Language • Unique buildings • Religious Practices • Celebrations/traditions/holidays • Examples: • Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. • Many Mexicans are Catholic. • Mayan ruins are located in Mexico. • Cinco de Mayo is a national holiday in Mexico.
Activity: How does this song describe a place? What kind of place is this? What are its physical and human characteristics? What other songs do you know that describe places? Home on the Range Oh, give me a home where the buffalo roamWhere the deer and the antelope playWhere seldom is heard a discouraging wordAnd the skies are not cloudy all dayHome, home on the rangeWhere the deer and the antelope playWhere seldom is heard a discouraging wordAnd the skies are not cloudy all dayHow often at night when the heavens are brightWith the light from the glittering starsHave I stood there amazed and asked as I gazedIf their glory exceeds that of ours Home, home on the rangeWhere the deer and the antelope playWhere seldom is heard a discouraging wordAnd the skies are not cloudy all dayWhere the air is so pure, the zephyrs so freeThe breezes so balmy and lightThat I would not exchange my home on the rangeFor all of the cities so brightHome, home on the rangeWhere the deer and the antelope playWhere seldom is heard a discouraging wordAnd the skies are not cloudy all dayOh, I love those wild flow'rs in this dear land of oursThe curlew, I love to hear screamAnd I love the white rocks and the antelope flocksThat graze on the mountaintops greenHome, home on the rangeWhere the deer and the antelope playWhere seldom is heard a discouraging wordAnd the skies are not cloudy all day
Theme Three: Human and Environment Interaction 3) Relationships within places: the development and consequences of human-environment relationships • Sample terms: Ecosystems, natural resources, environmental pollution • Skills: Evaluation, analysis • Questions: What human-environment relationships are occurring? How do they affect the place and its inhabitants?
Theme 3: Human Environment Interaction How People Interact With Their Environment People . . . • Adapt to Their Environment • Modify Their Environment • Depend on Their Environment http://www.fotosearch.com/comp/corbis/DGT119/BAG0017.jpg
Human-Environment Interaction • People use/change & live with environment • Live with climate • Drain swamps • Dig irrigation ditches • Problems caused • Pollution • Habitat disappears • Desertification
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION • How do humans and the environment affect each other? • We depend on it. • People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation. • We modify it. • People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort. • We adapt to it. • We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine.
North Carolina: Human Environment Interaction http://aam.wcu.edu/grant/images/Fontana%20Dam%20Shirley.jpg http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/dukemag/issues/091002/images/mallc.jpg http://www.ee.duke.edu/~sag8/Duke/02-03/PiKA/Fall%20Break/Fall_Break_02.htm
Interaction A. Interaction between people and their environment Activity: List ways that people affect their environment. Are these harmful or helpful?
Theme Four: Movement 4) Movement: patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earth • Sample terms: Migration, diffusion, globalization • Skills: Explanation, prediction • Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?
MOVEMENT • How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? • Human Movement • Trucks, Trains, Planes • Information Movement • Phones, computer (email), mail • Idea Movement • How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines
Movement • Places do not exist in isolation. • Interconnectedness of the world changes the way places“look”. • Today: “globalization” • People, goods & ideas move from place to place. • Examples • Immigration from Latin America to US. • War in Iraq (troops, supplies, ideas, people) • UNL (people, ideas) • Myspace, Facebook (ideas)
North Carolina: Movement http://www.marad.dot.gov/Gallery/MoreheadCity/pages/Ming%20Europe.htm http://www.evertize.com/land/images/I-40-64%20interchange.JPG
Movement: Activity: Find the origin of manufacture of as many items as you can on your body or in your bookbag. Examples: shirt, sneakers, jewelry, backpack, folders, pens pencils, and anything else you can find out the origin of manufacture. Make a list of the item and where it was made. How many of the items in the classroom can you name that have been manufactured in another country? What are the raw materials needed to make these items, the most likely place of production or manufacture, and the most likely form of transportation from the place of manufacture to the classroom?
Theme Five: Regions 5) Regions: how they form and change • Sample terms: Formal vs. functional regions • Skills: Synthesis, application • Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?
Region • Similar or different? • Similar characteristics • Usually more than one • Formal regions • Related characteristics • Continent & culture • Functional regions • Set of connections (greater DC) • Perceptual regions • People see characteristics same way – e.g., Midwest
Formal Region • Most common/familiar. • Determined by the distribution of a uniform characteristic (physical or cultural) • Location • Climate • Religion • Examples • Central America (Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama) • Latin America (spanish-speaking nations) • Tropics (countries located near equator)
Functional Region • Serves a purpose that affects places around it. • Distributes goods/people • Serves specific purpose • Examples: • Panama Canal • Amazon River Basin • Hollywood • Havana, Cuba
Perceptual Region • Groups of areas that provoke a certain stereotype or feeling. • Examples: • The Bronx • The “ghetto” • China town
5 Physical Regions of the U.S 1. Pacific Coast and Intermountain Region a) includes mountains along coast 2. Rocky Mountains a) highest peaks in the U.S, above tree level 3. Great Plains a) flat grassland with little trees 4. Appalachian Mountains a) lower and less rugged than the Rockies 5. Atlantic Coastal Plain a) flat lowlands along the coast