The Country Of Vietnam VYEA Popular Culture Class Summer School – 2010 Lecture 5
Contents • Geography • The People • History (from 2879 B.C. to 1945) • Historical and scenic Places • Quiz
Geography • Characterized by two major river deltas. The Red river delta is in the north and the Mekong river delta is in the south. • Southeastern peninsula • S-shaped • Area: 331,688 km2 (128,065 mi2) • North to South: 1,650 km (1025 mi) • Coast line: 3,260 km (2026 mi) • Bordered with China (north), Laos (west), Cambodia (southwest) and Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Thailand (east and southwest)
The People • The origins are traced to the inhabitants of the Red river delta between 500 and 200 B.C. who were a mixture of Australoid, Austronesian, and Mongoloid stock. • Largely villagers, skilled in rice cultivation and fishing. • Vietnamese, the official language, is the mother tongue of the vast majority of the people. • Kinh is the major ethnic group • There are about eleven minority ethnic groups (Tay, Thai, Hmong, Muong, Nung, Khmer, Kohor, Cham, Ede, Bahnar and Jarai) with their own writing systems.
The Hùng Dynasty(2879 – 258 B.C.)mythological dates • Named the kingdom Văn Lang • First king: Hùng Vương I, son of Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ. • Ruled 18 generations
The Thục Dynasty(257 – 207 B.C.) • King Hùng Vương the 18th lost his throne to the ruler of neighboring upland kingdom of Thục. • Âu Lạc was formed by unification of Âu Lạc and Thục. • Capital: Cổ Loa Citadel
The Triệu Dynasty(207 – 111 B.C.) • Âu Lạc was conquered by Chinese Tần (Qiu) dynasty general Triệu Đà (Zhao Tuo) • In China, the Western Hán dynasty overthrowned the Tần dynasty so Triệu Đà combined the territories under his control in Southern China and Northern Vietnam and established the kingdom of Nam Việt (Nan Yue). • The three districts out of nine districts of Nam Việt were Giao Chỉ, Cửu Chân and Nhật Nam.
Map of Vietnam during the Triệu Dynasty
The First Chinese Domination Eastern Hán Dynasty (111 B.C. – 39 A.D.) • Triệu Dương Vương was defeated by the Chinese armies of Vũ Đế (Wu Di) • Nam Việt was incorporated into the Hán empire and ruled under a Chinese governor. The Trưng Sisters of Giao Chỉ (40 – 43 A.D.) • Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị defeated the Chinese army and claimed independence from Chinese government, proclaimed themselved as Kings of Giao Chỉ. • The Trưng sisters were later committed suicide at the Hát river when defeated by general Mã Viện of the Hán dynasty.
The Second Chinese Domination(43 – 544) • Under different Chinese dynasties between 43 and 544, the Chinese ruled the Southern people in a cruel way. • A rebellion led by a noblewoman Triệu Thị Trinh in 248 A.D. was suppressed after six months but marked a patriotic value in the history of the Vietnamese people.
The early Lý Dynasty(544 – 602) • Lý Bí (Lý Bôn) rised against and expelled the Chinese administration, led the insurrection that ended in 543. He was declared emperor Lý Nam Đế by the people. • Renamed the empire Vạn Xuân, established the capital at Long Biên (modern-day Hà Nội). • In 602 A.D., the new Sui dynasty in China defeated the Liang dynasty, invaded Vạn Xuân and reclaimed the country.
The Third Chinese Domination(603 – 939) • During this period, the Chinese Sui dynasty (602-618) and Tang dynasty (618-907) had great influence and cruelest ruling in Giao Châu province. • In 678, King Cao Tong of the Tang dynasty divided Giao Châu province into 12 smaller provinces and 59 districts called An Nam (An Nam Đô Hộ Phủ). • In 722, Mai Thúc Loan led his own army and fought back the Chinese, prolaimed himself emperor Mai Hắc Đế. He was later defeated by the Chinese and died. • The Tang dynasty finally collapsed in 907.
The Ngô Dynasty(939 – 965) • Emperor Ngô Quyền defeated Nam Hán army at Bạch Đằng river and ascended the throne. • Moved the capital back to Cổ Loa Citadel.
The Dinh Dynasty(968 – 980) • After Ngo Quyen died, his descendants were incapable kings and caused the presence of 12 warlords (Thập Nhị Sứ Quân). These were generals who lorded 12 different regions. • Đinh Bộ Lĩnh brought political unity to the country and became Emperor Đinh Tiên Hoàng and named the country Đại Cồ Việt (The Great Viet). • Capital: Hoa Lư
The early Lê Dynasty(980 – 1009) • Emperor Lê Đại Hành (Lê Hoàn) defeated the Tống army from China. • Southward expidition to Champa began in 990 and again in 994. • Cham kings negotiated with emperor Lê for peace and and agreed to be a Vietnamese vassal state.
The Lý Dynasty(1009 – 1225) • Lý Thái Tổ was the first king (Lý Công Uẩn) and moved the capital to Đại La (Thăng Long – present-day Hà Nội). • The name of the country was changed to Đại Việt in 1054. • Buddhism became national religion. • Stopped invasion of from Chinese from the north and pacified Champa Chiêm Thành) from the south. • Beginning the long march to the south at the expense of Champa.
Southeast Asia circa 1010 AD. Đại Việt lands in yellow, Champa in green and Khmer Empire in purple
Edict on the Transfer of the Capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La Đại La Citadel
The Trần Dynasty(1225 – 1400) • Trần Thái Tông was the first emperor of the Trần dynasty. • The Trần leaders carried out extensive land reforms and improved public administration. • Defense of the country against the Mongols three times by general Trần Hưng Đạo. In the last invasion, the Yuan navy was defeated at the battle of Bạch Đằng river in 1288 (a repetition from the Ngô dynasty). • Exchange of two Cham provinces (Châu Ô, Châu Lý) with king Trần Anh Tông’s princess, Huyền Trân Công Chúa.
Statue of general Trần Hưng Đạo in Saigon
The short-lived Hồ Dynasty(1400 – 1407) • General Hồ Quý Ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself founder of the Hồ Dynasty. • King Hồ Quý Ly was a talented person, conducted many reforms for the country but did not get support from the people. • Introduction of paper currency (1400) • The Ming reasserted Chinese control in 1407.
The late Trần Dynasty(1407 – 1413) • Army was not well-trained • Defeated by Chinese Ming after 7 years due to disunity and the selfishness of individuals.
The Fourth Chinese Domination(1414 – 1427) • Under the Ming Dynasty in China. • Ten years of uprising against Ming enemy from 1418 to 1427 by Lê Lợi, one of Vietnam’s most celebrated heros.
The Lê Dynasty(1428 – 1788) • King Lê Thái Tổ (Lê Lợi, founder of the early Lê Dynasty, 1428 – 1527) ascended the throne and proclaimed himself king. • The greatest Lê dynasty ruler was Lê Thánh Tông (1460 – 1497): census conducted every 6 years, revised tax system, writing of National History (Great Viet History consisting of 15 books). The Hồng Đức Legal Code was written. Conquest of Champa in 1471. • The Mạc Dynasty (1527 – 1592) ruled the northern provinces of Vietnam. • Southern and Northern Dynasties (1533 – 1592): Northern by Mạc Đăng Dung. Southern by Nguyễn Lords under the name of Lê Kings. They fought for nearly 60 years before the Southern dynasty defeated the Northern. • Civil wars in Vietnam: between Trịnh Lords and Nguyễn Lords (1627 – 1673). • In 1693, Lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu attacked Champa, captured their king and took control of their land. • The Nguyễn, aided by the Chinese settlers, succeeded in forcing the Khmer completely out of the Mekong Delta by 1749.
The Mạc area in pink The Mạc area in pink The Trịnh area in brown The Nguyễn area in yellow
Tây Sơn Dynasty(1788 – 1802) • In 1786 Nguyễn Huệ, the youngest of the Tây Sơn brothers, defeated the Trịnh army. • In 1788 Nguyễn Huệ defeated the Man Chu army of Chinese emperor Qianglong (Càn Long) and proclaimed himself emperor Quang Trung Hoàng Đế. • Before he executed his plan of capturing Nguyễn Ánh in Gia Định (Sàigòn), emperor Quang Trung collapsed and died at age of 40.
Quang Trung Hoàng Đế (Nguyễn Huệ) Tây Sơn Citadel – North Gate
Tây Sơn Coin Tây Sơn Stamps
The Nguyễn Dynasty(1802 – 1945) • Emperor Gia Long (Nguyễn Phúc Ánh) was the founder of the Nguyễn dynasty and named the country Việt Nam, moved the capital to Phú Xuân (Huế). • By 1867 French occupied 6 provinces in the south. • By 1883 French Protectorate over the north and central Vietnam was established and ended Vietnam’s independence. • The country was partitioned into three: Cochinchina (south) became a French colony, Annam (central) and Tonkin (north) became Protectorates under the Nguyễn rulers. • Many independence movements were led by Vietnamese heroes and patriots during this time. • The last emperor was Bảo Đại (Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy), abdicated in 1945, ended the monarchy in Vietnam.
Emperor Tự Đức (1847-1883) Emperor Thành Thái (1889-1907) Emperor Duy Tân (1907-1916)
Emperor Khải Định (1916-1925) Crown Prince Bảo Long Emperor Bảo Đại (1926-1945)
Descending Dragon Bay(Vịnh Hạ Long) • Located in Quang Ninh, Vietnam • Has many isles in various shapes and sizes and limestone karsts. • 500 million years of formation • UNESCO World Heritage Site • Area = 1,553 km2 (599.6 mi2)