Environment PPT Jake Koepp
Minnesota’s Population. The US state of Minnesota has a population of 5,220,393 and ranks as the 21st most populous state in America
Poverty Poverty rates have risen since 2000 as the economy has slumped and Minnesota isn't immune. The federal poverty threshold for a family of four is roughly $22,000 and over 10% of Minnesotan’s fall under that line. www.leg.state.mn.us
Minnesota Ecology • Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their non living environment. • The five levels of ecology are: • Organisms • Populations • Communities • Ecosystems • Biosphere
Organism An organism is any form of life. It is the most fundamental unit of ecology.
Populations A population is a group of interacting individuals of the same specific species occupying a specific area
Communities A community, or biological community, consists of all the populations of the different species living and interacting in an area, it’s a complex network of plants, animals, and microorganisms.
Ecosystems An ecosystem is a community of different species interacting with one another and with their physical environment of matter and energy
Biosphere All of earths ecosystems together make up the biosphere within which local ecosystems are connected. The Key ecological lesson from studying the biosphere is that everything is linked to everything else.
Food ChainsandFood Webs All organisms, whether dead or alive, are potential sources of food for other organisms. The sequence of food for the next, is called a food chain. Because most species participate in several different food chains, the organisms in most ecosystems form a complex network of interconnected food chains called food webs.
Evolution Minnesotans Evolution According to the theory of evolution, all species descended from earlier, ancestral species. In other words, life comes from life. Most of the evidence for this theory comes from fossils .
Fossils: Mineralized or petrified replicas of skeleton, teeth, shells, leaves, and seeds, or impressions of such items found in rocks
Minnesota Biomes Biologists have classified the terrestrial portion of the biosphere into biomes. They are large regions such as forests deserts and grasslands characterized by a distinct climate and specific forms of life.
Minnesota Population Growth Minnesota’s population grew 6.3% in the 1990’s; 4.6% between 2000 and 2009; and has an expected growth of 4% between 2010 and 2019 Minnesota’s aging population has caused a decrease in birth rate and an increase in deaths, due to Baby Boomers. “Which is that major reason for the slower growth.”
Effects of Human Activities on Global Biodiversity We have disturbed to some extent at least half, and probably 83%, of the earth’s land surface. Most of this has been done by filling in wet lands and converting grass lands and forests to crop fields and urban areas. By some estimates, humans use, waste, or destroy about 10 – 55% of the net primary productivity of the planet’s terrestrial ecosystems. In the United States, at least 95% of the virgin forests in the lower 48 states have been logged for lumber and to make room for agriculture, housing, and industry. As well as, 98% of tall grass prairie in the Midwest and great plains has disappeared.
Effects of Human Activities on Minnesota’s Biodiversity Minnesota’s primary large scale human activities effecting biodiversity are mining and logging.
Minnesota Forest Types • Aspen-birch • Black spruce • Black walnut • Bottomland hardwoods • Eastern white pine • Jack pine • Northern hardwoods • Oak-hickory • Northern white-cedar • Red (Norway) pine • Spruce-fir • Tamarack
Nature Reserves • Minnesota is home to many nature reserves. Most ecologists and conservation biologists believe the best way to preserve biodiversity is through a world wide network of protected areas. Currently about 12% of the Earth’s land area has been protected strictly or partially in nature reserves, parks, wild life refugees, wilderness, and other areas. Conservation biologists call for protection of at least 20% of the Earth’s land area in a global system of biodiversity reserves that includes multiple examples of all the Earth’s biomes.
Minnesota National Parks • Nearly 200 years ago voyageurs paddled birch bark canoes full of animal pelts and trade goods through this area on their way to Lake Athabasca, Canada. • Today, people explore the park by houseboat, motorboat, canoe, and kayak. • Voyageurs is a water-based park where you must leave your car and take to the water to fully experience the lakes, islands, and shorelines of the park.
Species Extinction • There are three levels of species extinction. Local extinction occurs when a species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world. Ecological extinction occurs when so few members of a species are left that it can no longer play its ecological roles in the biological communities where it is found. Biological extinction occurs when a species is no longer found anywhere on Earth.
Minnesota Endangered Species • Bald Eagle • Higgins Eye • Canadian Lynx • Winged Mapleleaf • Scaleshell Mussel • Piping Plover • Topeka Shiner • Grey Wolf
Food Security • Food security means that every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy lifestyle. • Minnesota had 9.5 percent of its people living in households that struggled with hunger or were “food insecure” according to the USDA. • There has been a 67% increase in food shelf visits in Minnesota since 2000.
Minnesota Food Stamps Minnesota continues to underutilize the food support program. • Nearly 475,000 are eligible to receive food support yet only 60% are using the program. • With full participation, the state of Minnesota could have an additional $394 million of federal dollars in the local economy.
Food Production Since 1950 food production from crop lands, range lands, and ocean fisheries has increased dramatically. Three systems supply most of our food. Crop lands mostly produce grains and provide about 77% of the world’s food, using 11% of the world’s land area.
Range Lands and Pastures Produce meat, mostly from grazing livestock, and supply about 16% of the world’s food, using about 20% of the world’s land.
Oceanic Fisheries Supply about 7% of the world’s food
Importance of Minnesota’s Food Production For generations, Minnesota's food and agriculture industry has remained one of the state's leading economic contributors. With a 22 percent share of the state's total exports, food and agricultural production adds more than any other single industry. In addition, food and agriculture accounts for nearly 14 percent of the state's value added income, and 14 percent of the state's personal income and employment.
Waters Importance, Availability, and Renewal We live on the water planet, with the precious film of water – most of it saltwater – covering about 71% of the Earth’s surface. It takes huge amounts of water to supply you with food, provide shelter, and meet your other needs and wants. Water also plays a key role in sculpting the Earth’s surface, moderating climate, and removing and diluting water soluble waste and pollutants.
Water continued… Despite its importance water is one of our most poorly managed resources. We waste it and pollute it. We also charge too little for making it available. Only about 0.02% of the planet’s abundant water is readily available to use as fresh water.
Minnesota Water Pollution • Any chemical, biological or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired use. Water pollution can come from a single source or from larger and dispersed sources. • Minnesota’s waters suffer from a variety of different pollutants, each requiring a unique approach to remedy. Some, including mercury, are deposited into lakes and streams from the air, often traveling long distances from their source. Others, such as suspended solids, are primarily caused by runoff from agricultural fields and construction sites, and are deposited into nearby waters. Here you’ll find information on the more common types of pollution affecting Minnesota’s lakes, rivers and streams.
Nonrenewable Energy Minnesota had 46 coal-fired generating stations in 2005, with 5,676 MW of capacity, representing 50.8% of the state's total electric generating capacity; Minnesota ranks 22nd out of the 50 states in terms of coal-fired electric generating capacity.In 2006, Minnesota's coal-fired power plants produced 34.9 million tons of CO2, more than 80,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, and 76,000 tons of nitrogen oxide; coal-fired power plants were responsible for 34.1% of the state's total CO2 emissions.
Minnesota Nuclear Power Minnesota has two nuclear power plants, both of which are in Southern Minnesota. The plants, the Monticello plant in Monticello and the Prairie Island Plant in Welch (near Red Wing), are both situated on the Mississippi River. The two nuclear power plants provide roughly 20% of Minnesota’s electricity. Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant
Gas Turbine and Combined-Cycle Power Plants in Minnesota Minnesota also utilizes 8 gas turbine and combined-cycle power plants. These plants provide roughly 18% of Minnesota’s electricity. Pleasant Valley Power Plant
Minnesota's renewable resources • Minnesota utilizes: • Biomass • Hydroelectricity • Hydrogen • Geothermal • Solar • Wind Minnesota's Renewable Energy Standard (RES) is one of the nation's strongest renewable energy standards, requiring utilities to provide 25 percent of their total electrical generation from renewable sources like wind, hydrogen and solar power by the year 2025. I am happy to say that Minnesota is on track to meet that goal.
Minnesota’s Weather and Climate The climate of Minnesota is typical of a continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers. Minnesota's location in the Upper Midwest allows it to experience some of the widest variety of weather in the United States, with each of the four seasons having its own distinct characteristics
Weather Risks Due to Minnesota's extreme changes in weather the state is susceptible to bad weather. Minnesota winters have brought temperatures as low as 60 degrees below zero and as much snow as 170 inches. Blizzard conditions in a Minnesota winter are a yearly occurance
Weather Risks Cont…. Spring is a time of major transition in Minnesota. Snowstorms are common early in the spring, but by late-spring as temperatures begin to moderate the state can experience tornado outbreaks, a risk which diminishes but does not cease through the summer and into the fall. Due to Minnesota receiving 2/3 of its precipitation during the spring months on top of melting snow, flooding is also a sever risk
Environmental Policy • Due to Minnesota’s vast array of wildlife it is very important that we have a strong environmental policy. Minnesotan politicians are aware that Minnesotans take there land seriously and have made a partnership with over 80 80 nonprofit conservation and environmental organizations, committed to the protection and restoration of Minnesota’s lakes, rivers, streams, forests ,natural areas, parks and trails. • The Link to find out a full range of policy concerns and debates is: www.protect.mn
Minnesota’s Environmental Groups Agriculture Groups: • MEP Advancing Conservation • Minnesota Environmental Partnership • Land Stewardship Project • Energy Groups: • Center for Energy and Environment • Fresh Energy
Minnesota’s Environmental Groups Continued… Forest Group: Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy Aquatic Group: Minnesota Waters Izaak Walton League Sierra Club Northstar Chapter
Links • featured.matternetwork.com • stephsnature.com • tywkiwdbi.blogspot.com • uomdm.blogspot.com • treasure-hunting-team.com • ndsu.nodak.edu • skyscrapercity.com • www.mankato-mn.gov • communitywalk.com • http://www.myminnesotawoods.umn.edu • http://www.nps.gov • visitcranelake.com • http://www.extension.umn.edu • http://www.mnpower.com • flickr.com • http://www.mepartnership.org