The Up Front • Lecture • Series Miami, Florida
Hurricane “e”Rave, Club, and Party DrugsFall 2001 Update Jim Hall Up Front Drug Information Center Miami, Florida
Rave and Club Drugs • MDMA (“ecstasy” or “e”) • LSD • GHB, GBL, and 1,4BDL • Rohypnol, Xanax, Clonopin • Ketamine (Special K) • Methamphetamine • Heroin • Alcohol Uppers in Red Downers in Blue
ECSTASY (MDMA) • XTC, X, Rollers, and now “e” • Hallucinogenic stimulant. • Desired Effects--Introspectiony distorti • Adverse Effects--Severe thirst, heat exhaustion, long-term brain disorders, death • Usually tablets or capsules, but reports of injection of X. • PMA; Flatliners:4-MTA; SuperX 33
A Public HealthPerspective on MDMA 3,4 –Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
What we know II. Challenges and Opportunities I. Advances "e" MDMA ecstasy Turn adversity to advantage Research III. Future Directions Next, please.
Advances: evolution • The of abuse as a Public Health issue MDMA
ecstasy X-T-C ecstasy • The of evolution MDMA Acid "x" rolling "e"
ecstasy "e" X-T-C ecstasy • The of evolution MDMA Acid rolling "x" "e"
Advances evolution • The of abuse as a Public Health issue MDMA
Journal Citations: • Golub, AL and Johnson, BD. Crack's Decline: Some Surprises Across U.S. Cities. NIJ Research in Brief US DOJ: Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. www.usdoj.nij.gov
Phases of a Drug Epidemic Plateau Decline Expansion Generic Epidemic Model Ugachaka # of Users & Problems Incubation Time
TheUgachakaPhenomena • Epidemic Outbreak • Compulsive “I can’t stop...” • Youthful
History of Cocaine Escalating cocaine use among young adult users of other illicit drugs in the late 1970s and adolescents in the early 1980’s led to the national cocaine epidemic twenty years ago. Quaaludes 714 Pot Ugachaka Purple Micro-dots
CocaineInitiates (1000s) One and a Half Million 1982 1998 1976 1970 Source: 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
Advances: Extended Incubation Period • Before 1996 and • Among distinct groups X-T-C
The Early Years: Designed and Legal by 1980 From MDA to MDMA MDMA
...Blow your Mind... The Early Years: Europe The Warehouse Parties Acid House Music Acid Acid Blow your Mind...
BUSTED - 1985 Therapy ? Or No Clinical Trails ? Schedule I
It’s Safe, Isn’t it ? ecstasy Crack Summer 1986 Cocaine Repudiated on campus Replaced by MDMA ecstasy
The Club Drugs GHB Ketamine Heroin LSD X-T-C Generation X
The Club Drugs Alcohol alprazolam (XanaX) flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) clonazepam (Klonopin) X-T-C
X-T-C • User Scenes • European Techno-Dance • Gay men Dance & Circuit Parties • The Club Chic • Campus Clubs • Raves
X-T-C • User Scenes • Heterosexual bars and parties • Adolescents • Tourists • Young Adult Professionals
rolling Mid 1990s Years of Deception Rising Interest Fewer Pills More Fakes
MDMA The Expansion Phase "e"
MDMA Expansion Phase It’s Supply Driven • Fueled by dramatic increases in MDMA trafficking, and • Its availability to younger populations
Journal Citations: • Joint Assessment of MDMA Trafficking Trends. US DOJ: National Drug Intelligence Center www.usdoj.ndic.gov
Hurricane “e” e e
Disapproval Source: NIDA: Monitoring The Future Study, University of Michigan Availability ecstasy
Teen MDMA Annual Use 1999 to 2000 Source: NIDA: Monitoring The Future Study, University of Michigan
Perceived Risk Use "e"
Availability MDMA Among USA Adolescents Risk Use Disapproval Source: NIDA: Monitoring The Future Study
Mentions of MDMA (“ecstasy”) in National Emergency Room Reports 1992-2000 Source: US Dept HHS: SAMHSA - OAS: DAWN