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The French Revolution

The French Revolution

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The French Revolution

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  1. The French Revolution • French Monarchy and aristocracy-great wealth in mid 1770s. • Majority of French people (peasants) had few rights. • Wanted a better way of life.

  2. January 31, 2014 • Chapter 11 test today! Take a few minutes and study. • After test you will do chapter 12 vocab and turn this in for a grade.

  3. January 30, 2014 • Tomorrow is chapter 11 test. • You will work on Chapter 11 study guide for the 1st half of class, then we will review. • Get busy!

  4. January 23, 2014 • Bell Work: Do Activity 11 worksheet (Interpreting Graphs) • Get busy…you will turn this in for a grade!

  5. King Louis XV and the Three Estates

  6. French Society Divided • Three estates-orders of society • 1st Estate-Catholic clergy-1% of pop. • 2nd Estate-Nobles-2% of pop. • 3rd Estate-Everyone else-97% of pop. • Estates determine a person’s legal rights and status.

  7. The First Estate • Roman Catholic clergy-controlled between 5 and 10% of land in France. • 1st Estate had two groups: • -Higher clergy-bishops, abbots, and noblemen by birth. • Lower clergy-parish priests (poorer backgrounds). Socially more part of 3rd Estate. • Land revenue and tithes

  8. The Second Estate • Nobility-owned 25% of land in France • Held high posts in gov’t and military. • Some lived in king’s palace in Versailles • Income-feudal dues from peasants who lived and worked on their land.

  9. Palace of Versailles

  10. The Third Estate • Largest social group • Peasants and artisans • Bourgeoisie-middle class • Some members very educated, but most lived in slums of Paris.

  11. The Third Estate • Peasants owned 40% of land. • Poor because of payments to other estates. • Worked hard, but no voice in gov’t.

  12. Growing Unrest • 3rd Estate wants change • Financial Troubles: • Deficit Spending • National Debt soars • Louis XVI spends too much money on himself and expansion of France.

  13. King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

  14. Growing Unrest • 1774 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette take over the throne. • Recognizes financial crisis. • Starts taxing 1st and 2nd Estate. • Both refused to be taxed.

  15. Growing Unrest cont… • Banks refuse to lend money to gov’t • Estates General meets in Versailles-May 1789 • Only through this meeting could Louis get additional taxes.

  16. Calling the Estates together • Estates-General had not met since 1614. • Made up of delegates from each Estate. • 3rd Estate larger than 1st and 2nd Estate combined. • 3rd Estate wanted a joint meeting where each delegate had one vote. • King insists each Estate meet separately. • One vote/Estate • 3rd Estate refused

  17. Calling the Estates Together • 3rd Estate locked out of Estates-General • 3rd Estate breaks away and forms National Assembly. • Gathers in nearby tennis court. • Tennis Court Oath • Promising not to disband until they have a written constitution for France. • Some members from other two estates join National Assembly

  18. Oath of the Tennis Court

  19. A Call to Revolt • Nat’l Assembly-upper clergy and nobility fight to keep privileges. • 3rd Estate want complete social equality • Afraid king wants to do away with National Assembly. • Storming the Bastille-a prison in Paris

  20. Fall of Bastille • July 14, 1789 –Paris, angry mob surrounds Bastille. • Break into armory to steal weapons to defend Nat’l Assembly. • Freed seven prisoners in jail. • Led to a revolutionary gov’t in Paris.

  21. Assault on Bastille

  22. Violence in the Countryside • The Great Fear spread throughout France. • Peasants drove landlords off property. • French Revolution had begun

  23. January 24, 2014 • Bell Work: Political Cartoon activity. Crayons and markers are on the back table. • When you are done…turn this in to me for a grade.

  24. Section 2 • Constitutional Government

  25. Constitutional Gov’t • Violence in the countryside • National Assembly worked to form new gov’t. • Power struggles: • Royalists • Moderates • radicals

  26. Marquis de Lafayette and the tricolor flag

  27. End of the Old Order • National Assembly make reforms • August 4, 1789-nobles voted to end privileges • Nobles gave up: • Feudal dues • Exemption from taxation • Agreed male citizens could hold gov’t, army, or church offices.

  28. The Declaration of Rights • Nat’l Assembly composed: • August 1789-Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • Enlightenment ideas (Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau) • Women not granted equal rights, but could inherit property.

  29. Painting of the Declaration Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

  30. March to Versailles • Louis XVI refused to accept new reforms and Declaration of Rights. • People wanted king to move to Paris from Versailles to show his support. • October 1789-thousands of women march to Versailles. • Forced king and queen to move to Paris. • Nat’l assembly move to Paris.

  31. Parisian women march to Versailles“Death to the Austrian! We’ll wring her neck! We’ll tear her heart out!

  32. A New France • King and Nat’l assembly in Paris • Gov’t affairs move forward. • Delegates turn to political reforms.

  33. Political Reforms • 1790-Nat’l Assembly vote to sell church lands to pay off debt. • Civil Constitution of the Clergy • French church under gov’t control • Clergy-elected, salaried officials

  34. Political Reforms cont… • Pope Pius VI-condemned legislation. • Many clergy refuse to accept. • Catholic church split from the French revolutionary gov’t. • Conservative peasants opposed constitution.

  35. The Constitution of 1791 • 1791-new constitution • Constitution: • Keep monarchy • Limited royal powers • Unicameral legislature (one-house assembly)-members chosen by voters.

  36. Constitution of 1791 cont… • Power in France switched from nobles and church to wealthy middle class. • Political division between left (radicals) and the rights (conservatives). • Division grows-most violent period in history of France.

  37. Decline of the Monarchy • June 1791-Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette flee to Austria. • Caught and returned to Paris. • Louis accepts limited monarchy. • French émigré's hoped to restore Louis XVI to full power. • Other monarchies in Europe began to worry.

  38. Decline of the Monarchy cont… • Fearing Austria would reinstate Louis: • French rev. leaders declare war on Austria in 1792 August 1792-Louis takes refuge in Legislative Assembly. -Imprisoned -Paris crowds attack king’s palace and killed many royal guards.

  39. Decline of the Monarchy cont… • One month later-September massacres • Paris mobs take over Nat’l Assembly • Called for another Nat’l Convention to create another constitution.

  40. January 27, 2014 • Bell Work: Time line Activity 11-The French Revolution. • You will turn this in for a grade.

  41. Section 3 • Dawn of a New Era

  42. Introduction • French Rev. leaders declare war on Austria and Prussia • Thousands of volunteers • French army win victory at Valmy-100 miles from Paris

  43. The French Republic • National Convention ended monarchy • France a republic • Meeting from 1792-1795 • A number of Democratic reforms • France’s 1st democratic constitution

  44. The French Republic cont… • Political Power given to single national legislature. • Universal male suffrage-every man could vote, whether or not he owned property. • Adopted metric system. • Calendar system changed.

  45. Death of a King • 1st task of convention-decide Louis XVI’s fate • Dec. 1792-tried and convicted • Conspired against nation • Jan. 1793-Louis XVI beheaded on the guillotine.

  46. Toward the Future • Sans-culottes-demand respect from upper class. • Jacobins-supporters of the sans-culottes and extreme radicals on the left. • Formed the Mountain

  47. Toward the Future cont… • Leaders of the Mountain/Defenders of the Revolution • Maximillian Robespierre • Georges-Jacques Danton • Jean-Paul Marat Girondists-right side -Felt Revolution had gone far enough -protect wealthy middle class from radical attacks.

  48. Toward the Future cont… • Plain-undecided delegates • Sat in middle • Made up majority of Convention

  49. Spreading the Revolution • Europe’s Monarchs viewed events in France with horror. • Jan. 1793 monarchs of G.B., Netherlands, Spain, and Sardinia join Austria and Prussia.

  50. French Expansion • France’s leaders determined to overthrow royalty. • Convention formed Committee of Public Safety. • Summer of 1793-adopted conscription. • Men 18-45 military service 1st “people’s war”