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ETHICS. Day 4. Review of where we are at Presentations Review of Ethics requirements for practicums and Resource Depletion task Check on RD questionnaire. Today’s ethics objectives. Why must we conduct ethically sound research?

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  2. Day 4 • Review of where we are at • Presentations • Review of Ethics requirements for practicums and Resource Depletion task • Check on RD questionnaire

  3. Today’s ethics objectives • Why must we conduct ethically sound research? • How do we judge and monitor research for its ethical standards? • Who needs to apply? • How do you apply? • Where can you get information and assistance?

  4. Why conduct ethically-sound research? • Moral obligation • Credible • Legal requirements

  5. Morality and credibility It's a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty − a kind of leaning over backwards. For example, if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid − not only what you think is right about it: other causes that could possibly explain your results; and things you thought of that you've eliminated by some other experiment, and how they worked − to make sure the other fellow can tell they have been eliminated.

  6. Legal requirements • Human Rights Act • Bill of Rights Act • ACC Act • Children, Young Persons & Their Families Act • Privacy Act • Crimes Act • Official Information Act • etc.,

  7. ‘Unethical’ examples • Genetic modification • “The Unfortunate Experiment” • Zimbardo (subjects acting as prisoners and guards) • Milgram (electric shock)

  8. Misconduct in Research • The fabrication or falsification of data. • Plagiarism, including copying and the use of data and ideas without acknowledgement • Misleading ascription of authorship and failing to acknowledge work primarily produced by a research student/ trainee/associate; • Intentional infringements of the ethics guidelines. • Research practices which bring or are likely to bring the Institute into disrepute.

  9. Misconduct Anonymous poll of 3247 scientists - % who admit having engaged in the behaviour listed within the previous 3 years (selection): 0.3%: Falsifying or “cooking″ research data 1.4%: Using another´s ideas without permission or giving credit 1.7%: Unauthorized use of confidential material for own research 4.7%: Multiple publication of the same data or results 6.0%: Failing to present data that contradict one´s previous research 10.0%: Inappropriately assigning authorship credit 10.5%: Withholding details of methodology in papers or proposals 12.5%: Overlooking other´s use of flawed data or interpretation 13.5%: Using inadequate or inappropriate research designs 15.3%: Dropping observations or data points on a “gut feeling″ 27.5%: Inadequate record keeping related to research projects

  10. National standards and requirements • National guidelines for ethics committees • Health Information Privacy Code • Ministerial directives • Researcher responsibility • Professional codes of conduct/ practice/ ethics

  11. Ethical considerations apply when... Humans or animals used as subjects, i.e. with: • questionnaires, interviews, focus groups • clinical trials (medical intervention) • observational studies • bodily tissues and fluids • treatments or exercises applied • genetic modification • use of personal, non-public information • using property/material which is culturally, historically or spiritually significant

  12. Principles of ethically sound research • informed and voluntary consent • doesn’t breach privacy • physical and emotional harm minimisation • cultural and social sensitivity • limitation of deception • respects intellectual and cultural property ownership • avoids conflicts of interest • adequate research design to meet objectives

  13. Before Collecting Data.... PRIOR APPROVAL must be SOUGHT and GAINED before research can commence

  14. Consequences • With formal ethics approval: • secure legal position • ACC coverage • professional coverage • Without approval: • researcher, supervisor or even institute accepts legal liability

  15. Responsibilities • Principal researcher (applicant) • apply for ethical approval • Supervisor • guide and inform student researcher • sign application • Head of Department • sign application • Ethics Committee • inform researchers and evaluate research proposals

  16. Specific issues • Maori involvement • Children as subjects • Power issues • Vulnerable subjects • Overseas research

  17. Ethical Dilemmas • BSocP students want to interview past or present marijuana smokers to find out what safe practices they typically use. • A teacher wants to run a focus group with her students to explore the effectiveness of different teaching strategies • A counsellor wants to use session transcripts (made for the purpose of supervision) in a project that evaluates the effectiveness of counselling • A group of women researchers want to interview men about fathering • A group of Pakeha researchers want to do research on Maori Health practices

  18. Information Sheets - 1 • what the research is about • what they are being asked to do, • what the likely consequences are for them should they participate, • that there are no disadvantages/ penalties/adverse consequences to not participating or of withdrawing from the research,

  19. Information Sheets -2 • any special conditions of the research that might affect their participation – eg. that there will be audio-taping or video-taping. • How participants will be informed of the results of the research • how confidentiality of information will be preserved. • a schedule for the destruction of personal identifying information.

  20. Information Sheets - 3 • the researchers who will actually make direct contact with the participants, • the supervisor for the project, • the host institution for the research. • a means (for example, a telephone number) by which participants are able to be in touch with the researchers, the supervisor and the chair of the Ethics Committee to ask further questions etc, and • the UNITEC approval statement

  21. Minimisation of harm • Who can be harmed? • What kind of harm could be done by our research projects? • What measures can we take to minimise harm? (q12) • sensitive topics such as sexual practices, drug taking, or illegal activities?

  22. Harm or Risks of Harm • Physical Harm. It is often the case that one must do some harm in order to bring about a greater good - sports research • Psychosocial Harm. By psychosocial harm is meant everything from the invasion of privacy and the diminution of social reputation, to the creation of enduring psychological fears and confusions. • Risk of Harm. No actual harm of any sort to participants but the risk of some harm.

  23. Cultural and social sensitivity • What defines culture? • What does an ethical approach to research seek to achieve with respect to culture? • What cultural ethical issues are present in our research projects? • How do we answer the cultural questions in the Ethics Application (q9 and q10)?

  24. Working with the framework of the Treaty

  25. Principles of Kaupapa Māori Research • Tino Rangatiratanga – The Principle of Self-determination • Taonga Tuku Iho – The Principle of Cultural Aspiration • Ako Māori – The Principle of Culturally Preferred Pedagogy • Kia piki ake i ngā raruraru o te kainga – The Principle of Socio-Economic Mediation • Whānau – The Principle of Extended Family Structure • Kaupapa - The Principle of Collective Philosophy • Te Tiriti o Waitangi – The Principle of the Treaty of Waitangi • Ata - The Principle of Growing Respectful Relationships

  26. UREC ethical guidelines re Maori • The Treaty of Waitangi • Tinorangatiratanga over Maori resources • A right to a fair share of society’s benefits. • Informed consent – byindividuals and organisations (whanau, hapu or iwi ) • Genuine consultation – before, during, after • Defining, designing, Resolving potentially difficult issues. Maximising the benefits (including Maori researcher development) • Result dissemination/ownership of reports

  27. Research design adequacy • Is the research question important? • Does the question justify the participants’ efforts? (q6) • Will the method we have chosen allow the necessary data to be collected? (q7, q8 a,b,e ) • Will the analysis that we undertake give answers to the question asked? (q8 f)

  28. Avoidance of conflict of interest • Are there are conflict of interest issues involving money, power, status or role? (q8c) • Are there potential conflicts of interest around expectation and truth? • What do we need to put in place or identify as a process to prevent conflicts of interest? (q12)

  29. Limitation of deception • Concealing your hypothesis or parts of it • Concealing who you are • Not telling participants what treatment they are on • Telling participants that something is happening when it is not • (q12)

  30. Respect for rights, confidentiality and preservation of anonymity • Right to be fully informed of all the risks and potential risks • Right to be told of the results and conclusions • Confidentiality/anonymity protected within limits agreed (q15) • What information is confidential - Exceptions

  31. Consent form • Title of project/Name of participant • I have seen the questions and understand the information sheet • Any questions I have about the research have been answered satisfactorily • I understand that taking part in this study is voluntary and that I may withdraw from the study at any time. • I understand that my participation in this study is confidential and that no material that could identify me will be used in any reports on this study.

  32. Consent form • I also understand that the …. will be stopped if, for any reason, I require this. • I have had enough time to consider whether I wish to take part. • I am aware that I can contact the Research Coordinator, …., by telephone at …. if I have any queries about this project. • Signature of participant, researcher, dates

  33. Respect for intellectual and cultural property ownership. • Acknowledgement of sources • Who owns the information you collect? • When is information in the public domain?

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