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Michael D. Dukes, Ph.D., P.E. Agricultural & Biological Engineering PowerPoint Presentation
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Michael D. Dukes, Ph.D., P.E. Agricultural & Biological Engineering

Michael D. Dukes, Ph.D., P.E. Agricultural & Biological Engineering

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Michael D. Dukes, Ph.D., P.E. Agricultural & Biological Engineering

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  1. Irrigation Technologies Update Michael D. Dukes, Ph.D., P.E. Agricultural & Biological Engineering Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS)‏ FFL/FYN In-Service Training Gainesville, FL, Mar 4, 2010

  2. Improper Design & Installation: Improper Coverage

  3. SMART WATER APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY (SWAT)‏

  4. What is Smart Water Application Technology (SWAT)? SWAT  Irrigation technologies designed to conserve water SWAT concept created approximately 2001 by Irrigation Association (IA) & water purveyors

  5. Smart Water Application Technologies (SWAT) Soil moisture controllers (SMS) Evapotranspiration (ET) based controllers Irrigation controllers that respond to conditions in the irrigated system to automatically adjust to plant needs Rain sensors (RS)

  6. US EPA WaterSense

  7. SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR (SMS) CONTROLLERS

  8. How Does It Work? Valve Water SMS Controller Timer Switch Common Hot W Water Soil Moisture Sensor (SMS) Image credit: Melissa Baum Haley

  9. How Does It Work? Valve Water Water SMS Controller Timer Switch Common Hot Soil Moisture Sensor (SMS) Image credit: Melissa Baum Haley

  10. Installation • Follow manufacturers instructions • Bury sensor in the driest area of the landscape • Irrigate for the “worst case scenario” • Soak sensor

  11. Where Should The Sensor Be Buried? • Dry area, full sun • Away from: • sloping areas or depressions • paved or compacted surfaces • roofline of the house • Center of an irrigation zone HOME GARAGE Timer Controller Credit: Mary Shedd McCready

  12. Sensor Burial • Place sensor in the root zone of the plants • Cover with soil to ensure good contact • Replace grass • Saturate the soil around the sensor • Using irrigation or a large bucket of water

  13. X

  14. Installation • Follow manufacturers instructions • Bury sensor in the driest area of the landscape • Irrigate for the “worst case scenario” • Soak sensor • Wire sensor to SMS controller • Wire controller to timer and irrigation valve

  15. Installation • Follow manufacturers instructions • Bury sensor in the driest area of the landscape • Irrigate for the “worst case scenario” • Soak sensor • Wire sensor to SMS controller • Wire controller to timer and irrigation valve • Set the irrigation timer appropriately • Set controller threshold

  16. Set SMS Controller Threshold • 24 hours after soaking the sensor • Some controllers automatically set threshold 24 hrs after soak • Water content after 24 hrs ≈ threshold • May be decreased slightly (~10%) to allow storage for rainfall • Follow manufacturers instructions

  17. WEATHER-BASED [EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)] CONTROLLERS

  18. Evapotranspiration • Evapotranspiration • the combination of total evaporation from the soil and soil surface and transpiration from the representative vegetation in the area Image credit: Mary Shedd McCready

  19. Evapotranspiration • Evapotranspiration • the combination of total evaporation from the plant and soil surface and transpiration from vegetation Image credit: Mary Shedd McCready

  20. Evapotranspiration • Evapotranspiration • the combination of total evaporation from the plant and soil surface and transpiration from vegetation • ET values can be calculated using: • Temperature • Relative Humidity • Wind Speed • Solar Radiation Image credit: Mary Shedd McCready

  21. How Do ET Controllers Work? (in) • Three types of ET Controllers • Historically-Based • ET is derived from historical ET values collected over a long time period • Stand-Alone • ET is calculated from on-site weather data by the controller • Signal-Based • ET is calculated from a local weather station and sent by signal to the controller

  22. Soil Water Balance Day 1 Soil Column Saturation Field Capacity RAW Maximum Allowable Depletion Available Water Permanent Wilting Point

  23. Soil Water Balance Day 2 Soil Column Saturation Field Capacity RAW Maximum Allowable Depletion Available Water Permanent Wilting Point

  24. Soil Water Balance Day 3 Soil Column Saturation Field Capacity RAW Maximum Allowable Depletion Available Water Permanent Wilting Point

  25. Soil Water Balance Day 4 Before Irrig. Soil Column Saturation Field Capacity RAW Maximum Allowable Depletion Available Water Permanent Wilting Point

  26. Soil Water Balance Day 4 After Irrig. Soil Column Saturation Field Capacity RAW Maximum Allowable Depletion Available Water Permanent Wilting Point

  27. RAIN SENSOR (RS)

  28. Expanding Disk Rain Sensor

  29. Valve Water Timer Common Hot

  30. 3-MC

  31. 13-MC

  32. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES WITH “SMART” CONTROLLERS

  33. Projects in Florida • Research & demonstration • Pinellas Co. SMS, UF/SWFWMD research and demonstration • Beazer Homes Duval Co. SMS, UF/SJRWMD research and demonstration • Orange County Smart Controllers, UF/OCU research and demonstration • Miami Dade County, UF/County demonstration • Developers • Lake Jovita, Pasco Co. SMS • The Villages, • Government/Utility • Manatee Co. Smart Controllers, rebate program • City of Stuart SMS, rebate program • Toho Water Authority SMS, rebate program

  34. SMS Controller Installations Original “indoor” controllers installed outside

  35. The Reason for DBY Connectors…..

  36. Lake Jovita Case Study Mapped as Arredondo, Sparr, Kendrick fine sands Actual soil significantly disturbed

  37. Implementation Examples • Municipal Water District of Orange County • 899 Smart Controllers (ET based) on single family homes • 8 brands • 33%  decreased use • 18%  increased use • ~50% no change • Similar trends on commercial installations

  38. Implementation Examples (cont’d) • San Antonio Water Systems • No change between “water efficient homes” and comparison group • Actual use (~170 kgal/yr) double water budget (~80 kgal/yr) • Irvine Ranch • After pilot program ended, 50% of homeowners refused to pay controller subscription fee of $5/month • Statewide ET network in development • Otay Water District • Nearly half of Smart Controllers not set up properly

  39. “SMART” CONTROLLERS RESEARCH SUMMARY

  40. Irrigation Savings Compared to a Time Schedule No Rain Sensor

  41. Treatments • SMS, Current irrigation system withoutrain sensor • and with a soil moisture sensor controller • EDU+RS, Current irrigation system withrain • sensor & seasonal run time guidelines • RS, Current irrigation system withrain sensor • WOS, Current irrigation system without a • sensor

  42. Pinellas County Homes, Irrigation Nov 06 – Dec 08 62 a 54 a 34 a 22 b

  43. Pinellas County Homes, Irrigation Savings Nov 06 – Dec 08 62 a 54 a 34 a 22 b 65%

  44. ET Controller StudyGCREC Hillsborough County • Three ET controllers: T1, T2, T3 • Weathermatic, Smartline SL800 • Toro, Intellisense TIS-612OD • ETwater, Smart Controller 100 • T4: Timeclock with RS • T5: 60% of T4