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AP American History Review

AP American History Review

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AP American History Review

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  1. AP American History Review By Penny Wood Based on The American Pageant, 13th Edition

  2. 1. Name of the mega continent Pangaea 2. Way people traveled from Asia to the Americas Across the Bering Strait 3. Developed about 5,000 B.C. in Mexico, this product helped Natives form communities Maize 4. 1st American corn growers, lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and villages in cubicle shaped adobe houses and had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from rivers to grown corn Pueblo Indians 5. These people built huge ceremonial and burial mounds and were located in the Ohio Valley and near East St. Louis today Mound Builders 6. Term for farming corn, beans, and squash three sister farming

  3. 6. A group of 5 tribes in New York state that created a Confederation that eventually allied with Britain and France Iroquois 7. First group of Europeans to meet the Indians at L’anse aux Meadows Norse 8. Event to led to increased trade and travel during the Middle Ages Crusades 9. First European traveled to China and stirred up a storm of European interest Marco Polo 10. Nation that started a sailing school to find better ways to get to the Spice Islands, eventually rounding Africa's southern Cape of Good Hope Portugal

  4. 11. Caravel, astrolabe caused improvements in which activity during the Age of Exploration Shipping 12. Corn, potatoes, tobacco, syphilis, cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, small pox are all part of what trade system? Columbian Exchange 13. The Spanish and Portuguese divided the world under which treaty in which the Spanish got the better parts? Treaty of Tordisillas 14. Balboa is to Panama as Ponce de Leon is to Florida 15. Hernando Cortes and Francisco Coronado explored which continent? North America

  5. 16. Which two explorers conquered large Indian nations in Mexico and Peru and shipped large amounts of gold to Europe causing inflation? Cortez and Pizarro 17. The system of using Indians to work on Spanish plantations and be converted to Christianity Encomienda 18. Noche triste resulted in the building of which Spanish capitol in Mexico? Mexico City 19. Mestizos and mullatoes are terms that refer to what? Mixed blood (Spanish and Indian blood & Black and White) 20. Name one of the Italian sailors who explored North America – one for England and one for Italy Cabot and Verrazano

  6. 21. Jacques Cartier and Robert de LaSalle explored for which nation? France 22. Notion that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery) Black Legend 23. Event that ended Spanish control of the sea and led to England’s attempts at colonies in North America Defeat of Spanish Armada 24. Failed colony of Raleigh Roanoke 25. Policy of closing in land where poor cannot hunt on it and led people to go to the New World for land Enclosure

  7. 26. The policy by which 1st born son inherits ALL father’s land causing other sons to migrate to North America Primogeniture 27. How England funded their colonies Joint Stock Company 28. This company’s charter guaranteed settlers the same rights as Englishmen in Britain Virginia Company 29. These two men saved the Jamestown settlement with a “no work no eat policy” and strict discipline. Who were they? Captain John Smith and Lord De La Warr 30. This war ended in 1614 with a peace settlement sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to colonist John Rolfe First Anglo-Powhatan War

  8. 31. This war effectively banished the Chesapeake Indians from their ancestral lands Second Powhatan War 32. Jamestown’s gold tobacco 33. The council first elected in Virginia to deal with local issues House of Burgesses 34. These people arrived in America also came in 1619 to help farm Africans  35. Founded as a Catholic Haven, this colony offered the Act of Toleration, guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians, but decreed the death penalty to Jews Maryland

  9. 36. This event in England meant England could pay little attention to the Colonies Civil War 37. Founded by former Barbados settlers; they passed a harsh slave code South Carolina 38. North Carolina’s cash crop Rice • Only colony set up by the King as buffer to Spanish Florida and a haven for prisoners Georgia • First religious leaders who founded Protestant Faiths that caused people to seek religious freedom in the New World Calvin and Luther

  10. 41. Idea promoted by Calvinists to “prove” their worthiness and good work Protestant Work Ethic 42. People who wanted to reform the Church of England and believed that only “visible saints” should be admitted to church membership Puritans 43. These people vowed to break away from the Church of England (AKA, the Anglican Church) because the “saints” would have to sit with the “damned” Separatists or Pilgrims 44. Harassed the Separatists out of England. He thought that spiritual defiance equaled political defiance James I 45. The set of rules adopted by Puritans that set the standard for later constitutions Mayflower Compact

  11. 46. Two most popular governors of Plymouth who helped Plymouth to survive and trade fur, fish, and lumber Bradford and Winthrop 47. Prominent clergy member of Plymouth who played a powerful role in Massachusetts in the witch trials and the trial of Anne Hutchinson Cotton • Brought to trial in 1638, she boasted that her beliefs were directly from God – and that she was not subject to religious law (antinomianism) Anne Hutchinson • Wanted Massachusetts to make a larger break from the Church of England and was banished to found Rhode Island Roger Williams • First constitution of Connecticut that gave orders Fundamental Orders

  12. 51. A Wampanoag who helped keep relative peace between New Englanders and Indians Squanto 52. After this war in Connecticut, the Indians were annihilated in this region Pequot War 53. This war slowed the colonial western march after Metacom united the Indians against England King Philip’s War 54. A notable milestone toward American unity which united many New England colonies New England Confederation 55. Created to bolster the colonial defense against Indians and tie the colonies closer to Britain by enforcing the hated Navigation Acts Dominion of New England

  13. 56. These acts forbade American trade with countries other than Britain Navigation Acts 57. Head of the Dominion of New England who restricted town meetings, courts, press, and revoked all land titles and taxes the people Sir Edmund Andros • After this event in England, the Dominion of New England collapsed & Massachusetts’ charter allowed all landowners to vote Glorious Revolution • Companies from the Netherlands who raided shipping and were the middle men of products from Europe to the Americas Dutch East and West India Companies • Henry Hudson, Manhattan Island, Wall Street and patroonships(large areas of land to promoters to settle at least 50 people on them) are associated with which country’s settlers? Netherlands

  14. 61. He attacked the main Swedish fort, ending Swedish colonialrule in Delaware Peter Stuyvesant • Harlem, Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating, and golf are all remainders of which colonial settlement after the British conquered New York Dutch 63. This religious group included simple, devoted, democratic people against war, slavery, and violence and settled mainly in Pennsylvania Quakers • A popular, populous and successful colony with religious toleration that was 2nd to Virginia in wealth Pennsylvania 65. Fertile soil, grain, middle size plantations, ethnically mixed, with gentle rivers are characteristics of which colonies? Middle

  15. 66. Diseases like malaria, people lived to 40 or 50 years, 6:1 male to female ratio, tobacco cultivation are characteristics of which colonies? Southern • Which system encouraged growth of the Chesapeake and a shortage of land because people could get fifty acres for sponsoring an indentured servant? Headright • This rebellion was caused by people wanting land who resented governor William Berkeley’s friendly policies toward the Indians Bacon’s Rebellion 69. In South Carolina blacks along this river revolted and tried to march to Spanish Florida, but failed Stono • In these colonies, women had more power since men’s life expectancy was low Southern

  16. 71. Life in New England was organized around - towns 72. Which college was first established to train men to become ministers? Harvard 73. This type of sermon was intended to keep Puritan children loyal and faithful to the church “jeremiads” 74. To keep up church attendance, Puritans resorted to this new admittance policy of those partially converted, but its people questioned the faithfulness of others Half-way Covenant • Questions about people’s faithfulness and and issues over land ownership led to this troubling event in Salem Salem Witch Trials

  17. 76. What were the two largest ethnic groups who immigrated to the colonies (besides English) Irish and Germans • What is the term for a small farmer who might own one or two slaves? Yeoman • What was the most common disease killing people before the Revolution? Small pox • What were the most and least honored professions? Clergy and Lawyers 80. What is the name of the trade between England, Africa, West Indies, and New England? Triangular Trade

  18. What were the two “established churches” (tax-supported) by 1775? Anglican and the Congregational 82. Which church was characterized by shorter and less frightening sermons, and amusements were less scorned? Anglican 83. Due to less religious fervor than before, and worry that so many people would not be saved, the stage was set for a revival called the First Great Awakening 84. Two preachers with fiery preaching methods, emotionally moving many listeners to tears Edwards and Whitefield • Competition between these two groups in New England occurred during the Great Awakening over new ideas Old and New Lights

  19. Best known for his portraits of George Washington, also ran a museum, stuffed birds, and practiced dentistry Charles Wilson Peale • Only pre-Revolutionary poet, an African woman named Phillis Wheatley • Examples of early American literature: Poor Richard’s Almanack, Common Sense, Declaration • This man’s case established freedom of the press John Peter Zenger • What was the qualifying factor for the right to vote in early America? Owning land

  20. 91. Which Edict was issued by France, allowing limited toleration to the French Huguenots and allowing some colonization efforts to begin? Edict of Nantes • First French colony overlooking the St. Lawrence River Quebec • An intrepid soldier and explorerknown as the “Father of New France” who made alliances with the Hurons, angering the Iroquois Samuel de Champlain • New France’s (Canada) one valuable resource beaver 95. Religious group not allowed to settle in New France Huguenot (French Protestants)

  21. 97. Settlement founded by Cadillac in the Ohio Valley to halt western settlement by the English Detroit (“city of straits”) 98. Founded, in 1682, by Robert de LaSalle, to halt Spanish expansion into the area near the Gulf of Mexico Louisiana • Queen Anne’s war caused which country to lose Acadia (renamed Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to England France 100. Which war was caused by smuggling and the removal of a body part and led to the capture of Louisbourg temporarily but then its return angered the English? War of Jenkins Ear

  22. Which leader found some Frenchmen in the forest about 40 miles from Fort Duquesne and killed the French leader, battled at Ft. Necessity starting the French and Indian War? Washington • At which meeting did Ben Franklin attempt to get colonists to unite? Albany Congress 103. What was the slogan of the Albany Congress? “Join or Die” 104. Which British general lead a bunch of inexperienced soldiers with slow, heavy artillery? Braddock • Who made changes in the war and concentrated on Quebec-Montreal & replaced old, cautious officers with younger, daring officers? William Pitt

  23. Which fort’s collapse started the downfall of the French in the French and Indian War? Louisbourg 107. Who led troops to scale cliff walls at the Plains of Abraham, and fought the Marquis de Montcalm to cause the fall of Quebec? James Wolfe • Whose power ended in North America with the French and Indian War? France 109. Which country’s troops lost respect during the French an Indian War? Britain • Which troops won respect after the French and Indian War? Colonial England’s

  24. After the French and Indian War, which country lost power in Florida? Spain 112. Which Indian leader led a few French-allied tribes in a brief but bloody campaign through the Ohio Valley, but the whites quickly and cruelly retaliated and placed troops on the border? Ottawa Chief Pontiac 113. Which proclamation stopped any settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians angering land hungry colonists? Proclamation of 1763 114. What policy did England follow to keep wealth in the country and to take supplies from the colonies? Mercantilism • What was the name of the time when England ignored the colonists and the colonists became more independent? Salutary Neglect

  25. 116. Trade good that must be shipped to England Enumerated Good • Increased duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies Sugar Act 118. Required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops Quartering Act 119. Mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax and required offenders to be tried in English courts Stamp Act • Protest cry against taxes and Parliament’s response as a form of representation “No taxation without representation!” & “virtual representation”

  26. 121. At this meeting colonists agreed to boycott supplies and unify against the British Stamp Act Congress 122. Took the law into their own hands, tarring and feathering violators among people who had agreed to boycottBritish goods Sons and Daughters of Liberty • After Parliament repealed the Stamp Act it passed this act “to bind” the colonies “in all cases whatsoever” Declaratory Act 124. These acts put light taxes on lead, paper, paint, and tea, which were later repealed, except tea Townshend Acts • After this event, the colonists set up Committees of Correspondence which was a network of letter-writers and forerunner of the Continental Congress Boston Massacre

  27. Which company dumped tea in Boston Harbor in 1773? British East India Company 127. What famous protest occurred after this? Boston Tea Party • What were three of the parts of the Intolerable Acts passed to punish Boston? closed the harbor in Boston, no town hall meetings, charter to Massachusetts was revoked, new quartering act, all trials in England • What act further angered the colonists by extending boundaries of Quebec to the Ohio River which had been denied to colonists by the Proclamation of 1763? The Quebec Act • At which meeting did the colonists write a list of grievances and a Declaration of Rights? The First Continental Congress

  28. 131. Where did the colonists clash with British troops when the troops went to seize supplies and to capture Sam Adams and John Hancock? Lexington and Concord • Which mercenaries were hired by the British to fight in America? Hessians • List three disadvantages of Britain in the war no desire to kill their American cousins, poor generals, soldiers treated brutally, low supplies, 3,000 miles from home 134. List three advantages of the colonies Great leaders, French aid, better marksmen, fighting at home • What was the name of the French leader who helped Washington? Marquis de Lafayette

  29. 136. Which Prussian helped train American troops? German Baron von Steuben 137. Which Lord gave freedom to any African who fought for Britain? Lord Dunmore 138. After war’s end, where were some Africans moved to? Nova Scotia, Jamaica, and England 139. List two things the The Second Continental Congress did sent another list of grievances to Parliament;adopted measures to raise money for an army and a navy; selected George Washington to command the army. 140. List two reasons to choose Washington he was a tall figure who looked like a leader, and thus, was a morale boost to troops. He radiated patience, courage, self-discipline, and a sense of justice, and though he insisted on working without pay, he did keep a careful expense account amounting to more than $100,000

  30. In which campaigns did Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture needed gunpowder and cannon Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point 142. At which battle did colonials win until gunpowder ran out? Breed’s Hill or Bunker Hill • Name one city burned by the British Falmouth (Portland), Maine or Norfolk, Virginia • Which place was invaded because colonists hoped to add a 14th colony and deprive Britain of a valuable base for striking at the colonies in revolt? Quebec • Which base of operations did the British have to abandon? Boston

  31. 146. Name one of the battles won in the South Moore’s Creek Bridge, in North Carolina, and against aninvading British fleet at Charleston Harbor 147. Which pamphlet persuaded colonials to join in the fight against the British? Common Sense • Whose resolution urged for complete independence, an idea that was finally adopted on July 2, 1776? Lee’s • Give two other nicknames or characteristics of Patriots “Whigs,” From North, Congregationalists • Give two other characteristics or nicknames of Loyalists From South, Anglican, Tory

  32. 151. What was the name for those who sold to the highest bidder, selling to the British and ignoring starving, freezing soldiers (i.e. George Washington at Valley Forge)? Profiteers 152. How many Loyalists served the British in one way or another? 50,000 • What became the new basis of operations for the British? New York • Where was Washington defeated with only muster 18,000 ill-trained men to fight? Battle of Long Island • Where did Washington cross the Delaware River on a cold December 26, 1776, and surprise and capture a thousand Hessians? Trenton

  33. 156. Where did Washington leave his campfires burning as a trick and then defeat another British force? Princeton • Which British general made a mistake by moving 7,000 troops and a heavy baggageconsisting of a great number of the officers’ wives? Burgoyne • Where was Washington defeated before retiring at Valley Forge for the winter? Brandywine Creek and Germantown • Where did Burgoyne surrender his entire force causing the French to finally come to America’s aid? Saratoga • Who was our first delegate to France? Ben Franklin

  34. 161. Name two other countries who fought against the British (besides France) Spain and Holland 162. Who took the lead in organizing the Armed Neutrality (she later called it the Armed Nullity) that lined up all of Europe’s neutrals in passive hostility against England? Catherine the Great 163. Where did Washington attack which caused the British to retreat to New York on a hot summer day? Monmouth • Who led French reinforcements who arrived in Newport, Rhode Island in 1780? Comte de Rochambeau • Who, in 1780, feeling unappreciated and lured by British gold,turned traitor by plotting with the British to sell outWest Point? Benedict Arnold

  35. Name one of the places Americans won in the South King’s Mountain and Cowpens • What city in South Carolina fell to the British? Charleston 168. Which leader distinguished himself by slowly retreating and losing battles but winning campaigns to clear the British out of most of Georgia and South Carolina? Nathaniel Greene, the Fighting Quaker 169. Which treaty between the U.S. and an Indians resulted in the Indians losing much of their land? Treaty of Fort Stanwix • Who captured forts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vicennes and even on the coast of England? George Rogers Clark

  36. 171. Where was Cornwallis trapped into a surrender when Admiral de Grasse provided a French naval blockade? Yorktown 172. List two provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 besides granting US independence US boundaries stretched to the Mississippi River to thewest, the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the South; Spain got Florida; France got land in the Caribbean • Which religious group founded the world’s first antislaverysociety? Quakers 174. What idea promoted that women raised the children and thereby held the future of the republic in their hands? Republican Motherhood • Which state called a special convention to draft its constitution by convention? Massachusetts

  37. 176. List two economic problems after the Revolution ended Inflation was rampant, and taxes were hated, Britain flooded America with cheap goods, greatly hurting American industries • What was the first set of laws in the US? The Articles of the Confederation 178. What law pledged to distribute new lands evenly among everyone? Northwest Ordinance • List two weaknesses of the The Articles no executive branch, weak Congress in which each state had only one vote, it required 2/3 majority on any subject of importance, and a fully unanimous vote for amendments, could not tax or call up an army or regulate trade 180. Soldiers from which state harassed the government demanding back pay and forcing them to move to Princeton College in New Jersey Pennsylvania

  38. Which law divided new land into townships with one section aside for public schools and made provisions for statehood? Northwest Ordinance • Which rebellion highlighted weaknesses in the Articles and was caused by farm foreclosures? Shays 183. What plan called for Congressional representation based on state population? Virginia 184. What small state plan called for equal representation from all states? New Jersey • Which piece of legislation set up the House of Representatives,based on population, and the Senate, two representatives . Also, created executive branch as commander-in-chief elected by Electoral College? Great Compromise

  39. What piece of legislation counted slaves as 3/5 of a person in census counts for representation? 3/5 Compromise • Which party favored the proposed stronger government and were former Loyalists and were for the Constitution? Federalists • Give three characteristics of the Anti-Federalists Common people, wanted Bill of Rights, and states’ rights advocates, poor farmers • What was one criticism of the Anti-federalists on the Constitution? Lack of a Bill of Rights, No annual elections, standing army • Which state was the most important one to ratify the Constitution? Massachusetts

  40. 191. Which documents, written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, swayed New York to adopt the Constitution? The Federalist Papers 192. What fraction of adult white males in the country (mainly those with land) had voted for the ratifying delegates? 1/4 • Name the members of Washington’s cabinet Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson; Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton; Secretary of War: Henry Knox 194. What promise was made to many states who had ratified the Constitution? Bill of Rights • Amendment I four freedoms: Freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition

  41. Amendment II: Right to bear arms (for militia). 197. Amendment III: Soldiers can’t be housed in civilian homes during peacetime. 198. Amendment IV: No unreasonable searches; all searches require warrants. 199. What act created effective federal courts? The Judiciary Act of 1789 • Who was the first Chief Justice of the United States? John Jay

  42. 201. Describe Hamilton’s debt proposal. Paying state and federal debts at face value 202. Which section of the country’s states were angered by this because they had low debt? South 203. How was the South compensated? Virginia would have the District of Columbia built on its land in return for letting the government assume all the states’ debts • What two taxes were passed to pay off the debt? tariff of about 8% and whiskey tax (at 7 cents per gallon) • What did Hamilton propose to make a stable economy and money supply? Bank

  43. What were two reasons Jefferson opposed the bank? Not in the Constitution and it is a state power • What was the cause of a rebellion in 1794, in western Pennsylvania? Whiskey tax • What were the first two political parties in America? Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans and the HamiltonianFederalists • Which party supported the French Revolution? Democratic-Republicans 210. What did Washington issue to warn Americans to stay out of the war in France and be impartial? Neutrality Proclamation

  44. Who landed at Charleston, South Carolina, as representative to the U.S., equipped privateers to plunder British ships and to get individuals to support France? Citizen Edmond Genêt 212. Which treaty, in 1795, had the Indians cede their vasttract in the Ohio country to the Americans after at the Battle of Fallen Timbers? The Treaty of Greenville 213. What important information about British and Indian relations was learned during the Treaty of Greenville? British guns being supplied to the Indians • What practice involves the British kidnapping Americans into naval service? Impressment • What delegate was sent to Britain to avert war? John Jay

  45. Who sabotaged the meeting by secretly gave the Brits the details of America’s bargaining strategy? Hamilton 217. What treaty with England asked for repaying the lost money to shippers from “impressment” and America paying its pre-Revolutionary War debts to Britain? Jay’s Treaty 218. What did Spain give us in Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795? free navigation of the Mississippi and northern Florida • Why did Spain agree to this? They feared an alliance with Britain • What three things did Washington’s Farewell address warn against? political parties, alliances, sectional fighting

  46. What was the name of the event in which John Adams sent three envoys to France and the French demanded a bribe? XYZ Affair • What happened for the next two years? An undeclared war • What treaty ended the 1778 alliance and made Americans pay for damages to shipping? Treaty of 1800 with France • What laws raised residence requirements for aliens who wanted to become citizens from five to fourteen years? Alien Acts 224. What act promised fines and imprisonment for impeding the policies of the government or criticizing government officials? Sedition Act • Which party members was the Sedition Act aimed at? Democratic-Republicans

  47. 226. What documents were written protesting the Alien and Sedition Acts? Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 227. Who wrote them? Jefferson and Madison 228. What theory of government was championed by these documents? “states’ rights theory” 229. Which party wanted a strong government ruled by educated aristocrats; were for businessmen; were mostly pro-British; pro bank? Federalists 230. Who pardoned those who were serving time under the Sedition Act, and in 1802, he enacted a new naturalization law? Jefferson

  48. 231. Who was the “the Father of the American Navy”? John Adams • What was Revolutionary about the Election of 1800? The tied election was decided by the House peacefully • What amendment specified that electors vote for Vice President and President separately? Twelfth Amendment 235. Which party was led by Thomas Jefferson, rule by educated classes, wanted a weaker central government, mostly pro-French, for farmers, and low debts? Democratic-Republicans

  49. 236. What act passed by the Federalists in their last days ofCongressional domination in 1801, packed newly created judgeships with Federalist-backing men, so as to prolong their legacy? Judiciary Act 237. Which case said that the Supreme Court could determine the constitutionality of laws (AKA, “judicial review”)? Marburyv. Madison (1803) • What precedent was set when Jefferson tried to impeach the tart-tongued Supreme Court justice, Samuel Chase? No impeachment of Supreme Court Justice • What changes did Jefferson make to the military? He reduced it to 2,500 men • Which group did Jefferson pay $60,000 to in order to stop attacks on our ships? Tripoli Pirates

  50. 241. Who withdrew the right of deposit guaranteed by the Pinckney Treaty of 1795 and hurt farmers who floated their goodsdown the Mississippi? Spain 242. Who offered to sell New Orleans and the land west ofit, Louisiana, for a bargain of $15 million, thereby abandoning hisdream of a French North American empire? Napoleon • Which country’s rebellion, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, led Napoleon to sell Louisiana? Haiti • How did Jefferson justify this purchase? Through power to make a treaty 245. Which Shoshoni woman helped William Clark and MeriwetherLewis to explore this new territory? Sacajawea