Policy making can be frustrating due to the fact that policy makers usually rely on public opinion. • True • False
This requires policy makers move quickly when making policy, before public gets bored and loses interest. • Incrementalism • Policy fragmentation • Agenda setting • Issue-attention cycle • Policy formulation
Incrementalism is a fast moving process in which policy makers work to rush out a solution to a problem. • True • False
With regards to defining the role of government, the political left favors more government activity. • True • False
With regards to agenda setting, everyone has equal input when it comes to developing policy. • True • False
The war on drugs is an example of a policy that has been heavily fragmented. • True • False
The Constitution as ratified in 1788 most clearly reflects the framers’ commitment to • Direct democracy • Limited government • Abolition of slavery • Protecting rights of the accused • Maintaining the primacy of the states
Which of the following most accurately describes The Federalist Papers? • The Federalist party platform during the presidency of John Adams, the first Federalist President. • A popular anti-British booklet of the Revolutionary era • A collection of essays arguing the merits of the Constitution • A series of congressional acts defining the relationship between the federal and state governments. • The laws under which the South was governed during Reconstruction
All of the following are specifically mentioned in the Constitution EXCEPT • Judicial review • National census • Rules of impeachment • State of the Union address • Length of term of federal judgeships
Which of the following best illustrates the best use of the elastic clause? • The Supreme Court allows a lower court ruling to stand by refusing to hear an appeal. • A congressional committee prevents the full chamber from voting on legislation by delaying its report. • Congress passes legislation establishing a national speed limit. • A member of the House of Reps introduces a bill to increase federal income tax • A governor issues an executive order requiring all state employees to submit to drug testing
The swift adoption of the Bill of Rights in the years following the ratification of the Constitution demonstrates the • Framers ‘ unqualified commitment to individual rights • Small states’ determination to receive equal representation in the legislature • Northern states’ support for abolitionism • States’ fears of a overpowerful national government • Federalists’ concerns that the system of checks and balances would weaken the national government
According to the Federalist Papers, federalism has which of the following effects on political factions? • It provides a structured environment in which factions may flourish. • It limits the dangers of factionalism by diluting political power. • It allows factions to dominate on the national level while limiting their influence on state governments. • It eliminates any opportunity for factions to form. • It prevents factions by declaring them illegal.
The Constitution, as originally ratified, addressed all of the following weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation EXCEPT • Lack of a chief executive office. • National government’s inability to levy taxes effectively. • Absence of a central authority to regulate trade. • Insufficiency of the government’s power to raise an army. • Omission of a universal woman’s suffrage clause.
Congress would be required to use the “elastic clause” of the Constitution to • Change citizenship requirements • Impose workplace safety standards • Increase tax rates • Authorize the treasury to print money • Declare war
The framers of the Constitution sought to insulate the Senate from public opinion by • Restricting Senate membership to those who previously served in the House of Representatives. • Delegating the responsibility for electing senators to the state legislatures. • Requiring all spending bills to originate in the House of Reps. • Empowering the Senate to provide advice and consent to the executive branch. • Assigning exactly two senators to each state’s congressional delegation.
Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government had the power to • Negotiate treaties • Collect taxes • Establish a federal judiciary • Enforce its laws • Regulate interstate commerce
In Federalist 10, James Madison argues that a federal system of govt. reduces the danger of political factions by • Creating insurmountable obstacles to the creation of factions • Making it difficult for one faction to gain the power necessary to govern • Requiring equal representation of all factions within the government • Restricting factional political activity to the state level only • Allowing federal agencies to strictly regulate the activities of factions
Of the following, American federalism is greatly exemplified by the • System of checks and balances among the three branches. • Process by which international treaties are completed • Special constitutional status of Washington, D.C. • 10th Amendment, reserving powers for the states • President’s power to grant reprieves and pardons
Which of the following correctly states the relationship between the federal and state judiciaries? • Federal courts are higher courts than state courts and may overturn state decisions on any grounds. • The two are entirely autonomous, and neither ever hear cases that originate in the other. • The two are generally autonomous, although federal courts may rule on the constitutionality of state court decisions. • State courts are trial courts; federal courts are appeals courts. • State courts try all cases except those that involve conflicts between two states, which are tried in federal courts
To which characteristic of American government does the term “federalism” refer? • The system of checks and balances within the national government. • The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws. • The Bill of Rights’ protection of the rights of the accused. • The process by which the size of each state’s delegation to the House of Representatives. • The division and sharing of powers between the national and state governments.
National and state governments share all of the following powers EXCEPT • Administer elections • Impose taxes • Establish courts • Borrow money • Enact laws
The 10th Amendment most often comes into conflict with which section of the Constitution? • The “full faith and credit” clause • The “necessary and proper” clause • Provisions for impeachment • Prohibiting states from coining money and entering treaties • Provisions for constitutional amendments
People who interpret the 10th Amendment as greatly restricting the powers of the national government are often referred to as • Federalists • Isolationists • Laissez-faire capitalists • Loose constructionists • States’ righters
In the majority of cases, federal programs are implemented by • Private businesses, working as subcontractors to the government. • State and local governments, by means of federal funding. • Congress, through the local offices of its elected officials • The federal courts, by means of criminal prosecutions. • Federal agencies, through their many local offices in cities and towns.
The government often finds it difficult to make substantive changes to entitlement for which of the following reasons? • Most programs were established by constitutional amendment. • These programs are extremely popular among their numerous beneficiaries, and the beneficiaries rely on those benefits. • Such programs are vital to national defense. • Most such programs primarily benefit the wealthy, a powerful political bloc. • These programs’ budget are determined by nonelected bureaucrats, not by the Congress.
Judges have ordered Massachusetts to change the way it hires firefighters, even though the state does not receive aid from the federal government. Such an order is referred to as a • Condition of aid • Quid pro quo order • Mandate • Pro bono requirement • Per curiam order
The difference between a mandate and a condition of aid is • With a mandate the federal government tells a state government what it must do if it wants the money. • A mandate applies to a block grant; a condition of aid applies to a categorical grant. • A mandate applies to a categorical grant; a condition of aid applies to a block grant. • With a mandate the federal government allows the state to do as it pleases if its actions are in accordance with state law. • With a mandate it makes no difference who is paying the costs of a program.
The McCulloch v. Maryland decision established • Judicial review by the Supreme Court • State sovereignty in interstate commerce • National govt. supremacy over the states • Legality of the slave trade • All of the above
Which of the following best describes the practice of “ticket splitting”? • A presidential nominee selects a running mate who can appeal to voter groups whose support of the nominee is weak. • A voter chooses the presidential nominee of one major party, but chooses congressional nominees of the other major party. • A mayor orders the local police force to hand out fewer parking violations in the weeks leading up to the general election. • A delegate to a national party convention supports the front-runner but remains uncommitted on the party platform. • A member of Congress votes against legislation proposed by his or her party leader.
Compared with political parties in countries such as England and Israel, both of which have multiparty systems, American political parties are • Less interested in influencing the outcome of elections. • Less clearly identified with consistent political ideologies. • Less effective at raising money from political supporters. • Better able to reflect the goals of their entire constituencies. • More likely to organize around a single issue or goal
Of the following groups that have traditionally supported the Democratic Party, which would LEAST likely be cited by someone arguing that the Democrats represented only liberal constituencies? • White Southerners • Labor union members • African Americans • Northern ethnic minorities • environmentalists
A member of which of the following demographic groups is most likely to support a Republican presidential candidate? • White male • White female • African American, male or female • Youths under the age of 25, male or female • Individuals earning below poverty-level wages, male or female
Which of following is the most accurate statement about the voting behavior of Americans over the age of 65? • More likely, because they have higher education. • More likely, because they feel as if they have a personal stake in govt. policy. • Less likely, because it is difficult to get to the polls. • Less likely, because less aware of election schedules. • Less likely, very few senior citizens run for political office.
The greatest number of American voters identify themselves as • Liberal • Conservative • Progressive • Reactionary • Moderate
Which of the following most accurately describes the fate of most third-party movements? • They displace one of the two major parties and become a major party. • They are ultimately abandoned by public because their policies are too radical. • Their supporters become frustrated and withdraw from the political process. • They remain active participants in the American political system. • They disintegrate when one or both major parties adopt third party goals.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the leadership of the two major political parties? • The national party organization controls all facets of party activity. • Party leadership is dispersed among numerous officials at the national, state, and local levels. • The highest elected official in each national party directs that party’s activists all the way down to the state and local level. • All major decisions concerning party activities are made during each party’s presidential nominating conventions. • Prominent former officeholders, such a ex-presidents, lead their respective parties.
The absence of a political party solely dedicated to labor and working class issues in the United States • Proves U.S. politicians are not concerned about serving working-class constituencies • Is the result of government restrictions placed on labor unions • Reflects the difficulty of unifying a party around a single issue in a “winner take all” format • Demonstrates that, in the United States, most political issues regarding workers have been decided in the workers’ favor • Illustrates that race, not class, is the primary political division in the United States.
Which of the following is true of most third parties in U.S. history? • They arose and succeeded during times of prosperity • They were created to protest wars • At some point they won a majority of seats in Congress • They flourished during times of widespread dissatisfaction • They arose in response to increased government regulation
An open primary is a primary election in which • Voters registered as “independents” may not vote • Candidates do not specify the office for which they are running • Voters may register at their polling place on election day • Candidates need not announce their candidacy until the day of the primary • Voters may vote in the election of a party other than the one they are registered in.
The chart to the left best supports which of the following conclusions? • No more than half of all eligible voters ever participate in federal elections. • The number of registered voters always increases between elections. • Voters have been more dissatisfied with their electoral choices in the last decade than they were during the 1970s. • Voter turnout for midterm congressional elections is generally lower than it is for presidential elections. • Voter turnout for the 1996 presidential election was the lowest for any presidential election during the 20th century.
A Supreme Court that demonstrates a willingness to change public policy and alter judicial precedent is said to be engaging in • Judicial activism • Due process • Judicial restraint • Ex post facto law making • Judicial review
A writ of certiorari from the Supreme Court indicates the court • Will review a lower court decision. • Has rendered a decision on a case. • Has decided not to hear an appeal. • Will recess until the end of the calendar year. • Plans to overturn one of its previous rulings.
Under which of the following circumstances is Congress LEAST likely to pass a bill the president threatened to veto? • The president’s public approval rating is extremely high. • A failed attempt has been made to develop a compromise bill with the White House. • The party controlling Congress is not the president’s party. • The president has also expressed the possibility that he might not veto the bill. • Congressional leaders believe they have the votes necessary to override the veto.
The Rules Committee is considered among the most powerful in the House of Reps. because it has great power over the • Ethical conduct of House members • Selection of federal judges • Number of subcommittees that a standing committee may establish at any given time • Scheduling of votes and the conditions under which bills are debated and amended • Regulations governing federal elections
Among the executive branch’s checks on the legislative branch is the president’s power to • Call special sessions of Congress • Introduce bills to the floor of Congress • Address Congress during its debate on bills • Vote on acts of Congress • Disband congressional committees
Unlike a treaty, an executive agreement • Is not binding • Does not involve international relations • Does not require the Senate’s approval • Can be enforced by the military • Automatically expires after one year
Which of the following accounts for the fact that the power and prestige of the presidency have grown since 1932?I. America’s increased prominence in international affairsII. Continually improved public confidence in the federal government.III. The new deal and other programs that have expanded federal responsibilityIV. The president’s increased visibility, due to the development of mass media. • I only • I and IV only • I, III, and IV only • II and IV only • II, III, and IV only