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USCG AIRSTA MIAMI EPIRB’s How They Work & DF-430 MH-65C & D, MH60T, HU25, C-130J, HC144 PowerPoint Presentation
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USCG AIRSTA MIAMI EPIRB’s How They Work & DF-430 MH-65C & D, MH60T, HU25, C-130J, HC144

USCG AIRSTA MIAMI EPIRB’s How They Work & DF-430 MH-65C & D, MH60T, HU25, C-130J, HC144

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USCG AIRSTA MIAMI EPIRB’s How They Work & DF-430 MH-65C & D, MH60T, HU25, C-130J, HC144

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  1. USCG AIRSTA MIAMIEPIRB’sHow They Work&DF-430MH-65C & D, MH60T, HU25, C-130J, HC144 January 2010

  2. How the System Works L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  3. LEOSAR & GEOSAR Satellites L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  4. Types of Beacons Maritime Distress Beacon • EPIRBs 406 MHz (w/ 121.5 homer) Automatic activation when out of bracket and wet. Floats upright to transmit Strobe light Min 48 hour transmit Some GPS enabled L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  5. Types of Beacons Distress Beacon for Personal Use (Land Rescue) • PLBs 406 MHz (w/ 121.5 homer) Manual activation Carried on persons May or may not float Held out of water to transmit NO Strobe light required Min 24 hour transmit Some GPS Enabled L Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  6. Types of Beacons Aviation Distress Beacon • ELTs Transmit on 121.5 (most) or 406 MHz Integrated 121.5 MHzhomer Crash activation Floats upright to transmit No Strobe light Min 48 hour transmit L Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  7. EPIRB • Maritime Satellite • Emergency • Position-Indicating • RadioBeacon L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  8. EPIRB Operational Requirements • EPIRB 406 MHz Signal - 5 Watts • Short bursts at approximately 50 second intervals (varies between 47.5 and 52.5 s), with a transmission time of 440 ms or 520 ms. • Transmits in the 406.0 to 406.1 MHz band. • Transmission consists: • unmodulated carrier, for 160 ms, • short synchronization signal, signal inverted for test, • Digital message that provides stored information (identification, nationality, type of user), • Optionally, current information like, type of emergency and estimated location. Designed to prevent inadvertent activation L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  9. Hex ID • EPIRB’s identification, when decoded into its 15 character hexadecimal representation, which is the EPIRB’s unique identifier number. • http://www.cospas-sarsat.org/Beacons/decode.htm • Normally readout in 3 groups of 5 characters. Example: ABCDE 12345 ABCDE L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  10. Battery Replacement • Required at Expiration date or if EPIRB activated for any reason besides test. • Useful Life = power for all required testing + 48 hrs operation. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  11. EPIRB Operational Requirements • Positive visual and/or audible indication that EPIRB is activated (strobe light flashing). • Easily manually deployed, activate, and deactivated, and transferred to survival craft. • Not be activated or deactivated by conditions encountered in maritime environment. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  12. EPIRB Control • Ready – EPIRB should be ON in the water unless in its bracket. Sometimes labeled “OFF”. • ON – EPIRB operates regardless of location or orientation. Unconditional “ON” position. (Requires two physical actions) • Test – Self-test Function. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  13. Prevention of Inadvertent Activation • Must be fitted with means to prevent inadvertent activation and deactivation. • Not automatically activate when water washes over while in bracket. • Most EPIRBs use bracket with magnet to disable activation circuit. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  14. EPIRB Deactivation • Remove beacon from water and dry off or replace in bracket • Move switch to OFF or Ready position • If the above failed then: • Remove cover and disconnect battery L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  15. EPIRB Activation • How • By definition it transmits: • out of bracket and wet, • by manual switch, in or out of bracket, Or • Self test L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  16. EPIRB Activation • What Happens; • Beacon starts transmitting its Unique Hex ID in a 406 MHz digital message, • 121.5 MHz homer with an audible warble, • Strobe Light starts flashing. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  17. Rockwell Collins DF-430 L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  18. NAV Page • LS3 access the DF Control Page. • Accesses the NAV Page. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  19. DF Control Page • Access to BCN, TAC, and SAR pages. • Display page for LAT/Long if received.  PRESETS Df ctrl MODE: ON BCN  TAC SAR C/S ------------------------------------ ↕[] L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  20. DF-430 Utilization by USCG Aircraft • DF-430 Modes: Despite aircraft unique installations, all interfaces provide 3 basic modes of operations: • TAC SCAN - Tactical Scan • SAR SCAN - SAR • BCN - Beacon L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  21. TAC Scan • TAC Scan - will scan: 121.5 MHz, 243.0 MHz, 406 (.025 / .028 / .037) MHz, + Manually entered frequency. • Signal detection on operator selected tac freq, will result in TAC DET annunciation + bearing pointer. • 406, 121, or 243 detection will get DET annunciation, No bearing pointer. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  22. SAR Scan • SAR Scan - will scan: 121.5 MHz, 243.0 MHz, and 406 (.025 / .028 / .037) MHz, with priority to 406 MHz. • Signal detection 406, will result in DET annunciation + bearing pointer. • 121, or 243 detection will get DET annunciation, No bearing pointer. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  23. BCN • Beacon provides single-channel access to one of six signals: 121.5, 243.0, 406 MHz, CH=16 (156.800MHz), CH-70 (156.525 MHz), or ARGOS (401.650 MHz). • ARGOS (401.650) is the frequency for your SLDMB. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  24. Embedded GPS Data • Only some Beacons have GPS • Data only viewable if the aircraft DF-430 on the DF Control Page. • GPS data should be considered confirming source. • Fly the Needle on your DF bearing pointer. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  25. DF Control Page • C/S Will display LAT/LONG when position transmitting capable 406 is detected. LS4s will then copy position into scratchpad.  PRESETS Df ctrl MODE: ON BCN  TAC SAR C/S ------------------------------------ ↕[] L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  26. “fly-to-waypoint”. • From the DF Control Page, the aircrew will be able to capture GPS data into their scratchpad and create a “fly-to-waypoint”. • This can assist: • if the EPIRB signal is lost, or • at EPRIB passage as the FMS needle may swing before the DF needle due to ~50 sec transmit cycle of beacon. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  27. DF Bearing Pointer • DF pointer is relative (not stablilized) • DF pointer only updates on receipt of next 406 MHz EPIRB burst transmission. • Will seem jerky. • EPIRB transmission only every ~50 sec. • Burst transmission only half sec duration. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  28. Figure-of-Merit (FOM) Values • DF-430 will display a FOM value in range of 0-255. Only displays on TAC, SAR, or BCN Scan Page. • Practical application is as a secondary level of confidence the aircraft is tracking towards target. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  29. 406 MHz Detection Range L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  30. Operational Considerations • Transit in SAR Scan, unless tasking indicates a need to monitor a tactical freq. • Greatest range/ earliest detection opportunity at higher altitudes. • If a 406 signal is detected, DF needle will point and the GPS position displayed when received. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  31. 406 Beacon Tests • Every 406 MHz Beacon is supposed to be tested (using the self-test function) once every month. • Each test transmits one live 406 burst. • Wait at least two bursts before you react to a 406 Det. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  32. Operational Considerations • GPS positions from EPIRBs have been inaccurate. If the FMS and DF needles split, wait for next 406 burst and then Follow the DF Needle. • As a second confirming indication, watch for increasing FOM. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  33. EPIRB Prosecution What Does the CC/RCC do with a 406 Alert? L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  34. Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB • 1. RCC or RSC on receipt of unlocated registered 406 EPIRB: • a. Place case in the DISTRESS phase. • b. Assume SMC. • c. Determine status of vessel from contact number listed, available databases, etc. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  35. Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 2. If vessel is determined to be safe underway or in port: • a. Close case. A case will be claimed for all 406 alerts prosecuted L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  36. Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 3. If vessel is underway and cannot be contacted: • a. Issue UMIB for Home Port and general area in which vessel is believed to be operating. • b. Contact AMVER Ships and request callouts for the vessel. • c. Contact USMCC and request satellite forecast for the geographic area. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  37. Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 3. If vessel is underway and cannot be contacted: • d. If the next forecast satellite pass does not locate the beacon consider sending an SRU to the area to attempt to hail the vessel or DF on 406/121.5MHZ homing signal. Continue investigating to try to determine last known position/probable track of vessel for additional searches. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  38. Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 3. If vessel is underway and cannot be contacted: • e. If vessel cannot be located after reasonable search is conducted, search will be suspended. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  39. Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 4. If SRU is tasked to search for vessel: • a. Proceed top LKP/tasked search area. Make callouts for vessel and attempt to DF homing beacon on 406/121.5MHZ. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  40. Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 4. If SRU is tasked to search for vessel: • b. If signal cannot be DF’d once on scene and unless otherwise tasked, aircraft shall complete a VS search at radius of 12NM. Vessels shall complete the same search at 3NM. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  41. “A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB • 1. RCC or RSC on receipt “A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB: • a. Place case in the DISTRESS phase. • b. Assumed SMC. • c. Determine status of vessel from contact number listed (if registered), available databases, etc. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  42. “A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 2. RCC or RSC if vessel is determined to be safe/underway or in port: • a. Close case. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  43. “A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 3. RCC or RSC if vessel is underway and cannot be contacted: • a. Issue UMIB for general area in which vessel is believed to be operating. • b. Contact AMVER ships in vicinity and request callouts for vessel. • c. Dispatch SRU to located vessel and determine status. SRU’s should be tasked to DF on the signal. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  44. “A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 3. RCC or RSC if vessel is underway and cannot be contacted: • d. If vessel cannot be located after reasonable search is conducted, search will be suspended. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  45. “A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont) • 4. SRU if tasked to search for vessel: • a. Proceed to position/tasked search area. Make callouts for vessel and attempt to DF homing beacon on 406/121.5MHZ. • b. If a signal cannot be DF’d once on scene and unless otherwise tasked, aircraft shall complete a VS search at radius of 12NM. Vessels shall complete the same search at 3NM. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  46. “B” solution with alert probability less than or equal to 20% 1. RCC or RSC on receipt “B” solution with probability less than or equal to 20%: • Place case in the UNCERTAINTY phase. • Assume SMC. • Coordinate investigation with RCC responsible for “A” solution. If investigation determines “B” solution is the likely position, respond in same manner as an “A” solution. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  47. “B” solution with alert probability greater than 20% • 1. RCC or RSC on receipt “B” solution with probability greater than 20%: • a. Place case in the ALERT phase. • b. Assumed SMC. • c. Coordinate investigation with RCC responsible for “A” solution. If investigation determines “B” solution is the likely position, respond in same manner as an “A” solution. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  48. Unregistered/Unlocated EPIRB alerts: • 1. RCC or RSC investigate identity of vessel through vessel data bases. • 2. RCC or RSC contact RCC country of vessel registered and attempt to determine vessel’s status. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  49. False Alerts L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS

  50. False Alerts • If a false alert is determined upon arrival on-scene complete the following actions: • Have vessel de-activate the beacon. • Have vessel provide the beacon “HexID” • Have vessel provide the reason beacon alerted and include in MISLE Reporting. • Advise vessel that EPIRB and bracket require servicing and battery replacement. • Relay to tasking authority as required. L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS