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Preventing & Responding to Problem Behavior: Review of Best Practice

Preventing & Responding to Problem Behavior: Review of Best Practice

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Preventing & Responding to Problem Behavior: Review of Best Practice

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  1. Preventing & Responding to Problem Behavior: Review of Best Practice George Sugai, Brandi Simonsen, SERC Team Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports University of Connecticut January 14, 2009

  2. PURPOSE Practices & systems for responding to norm violating problem behavior. • Review of SWPBS • Discipline Best Practices, Emphases, & Considerations • Understanding & Managing Escalations • Action Planning

  3. PBS – Respect & Responsibility

  4. Behavior Situations • “Jaime’s all over the place. He touches other kids stuff, disrupts their concentration, & always getting in fights. I don’t know what to do with him!” • “What can I do to reduce # of kids who come to class late?” • “A few kids in my 5th period class never raise their hands when they have a question…they blurt out.” • “When I tell Sasha what to do, I’m ignored. When I repeat, I’m ignored again. So, I repeat again & tell her that if she doesn’t answer, I’m sending her to the office. She gets up & leaves! I want compliance.” • “Every other word out of Margindale’s mouth is sexually or culturally inappropriate….how do I get rid of her comments?”

  5. Discussion Pre-requisites • School-wide in place w/ integrity • Team meets at least monthly • Behavioral capacity in school • >80% staff participation • Active administrator participation

  6. www.pbis.org

  7. www.CBER.org

  8. SWPBS is approach for….

  9. Evidence-based Investments to Prevent Youth Violence • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) • Positive, predictable school-wide climate • High rates of academic & social success • Formal social skills instruction • Positive active supervision & reinforcement • Positive adult role models • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort

  10. Behaviorism Laws of Behavior SWPBS Conceptual Foundations ABA Applied Behavioral Technology PBS Social Validity SWPBS IDEA: Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports All Students

  11. Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  12. Evidence-based SWPBS Practices School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom • Smallest # • Evidence-based • Biggest, durable effect Student

  13. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ALL ~80% of Students

  14. Response to Intervention RtI

  15. RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Few Some All Dec 7, 2007

  16. Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation

  17. DisciplineHandout Steps, policies, or actions to support teaching & learning environments so likelihood of student academic & social success is promoted • Increases in likelihood of occurrences of socially appropriate behavior • Decreases in likelihood of occurrences of problem violating behavior • Decreases in intensity, frequency, & duration of severe problem behavior

  18. Discipline Emphases • Teaching & reinforcing context-appropriate social behaviors or skills. • Removing antecedent factors that trigger occurrences of problem behavior. • Adding antecedent factors that trigger occurrences of context appropriate social skills. • Removing consequence factors that maintain (function) occurrences of problem behaviors. • Adding consequence factors that maintain occurrences of context appropriate social behaviors.

  19. Considerations • Data • Benchmarks for measuring non-responsiveness • Discipline for academic success • Research validated practices • Prevention • Universal screening • Measurement for effectiveness • School-wide leadership team

  20. Other Guidelines • Behavior does not occur in vacuum; environment is big deal • No pain, humiliation, injury • Punishment defined by decrease • More positives than negatives • Discipline is screening • Secondary/tertiary is about teaching more desirable behavior

  21. REMEMBER • SW discipline is for 80% • SW discipline is screener for non-responders • By definition, behaviors of “non-responders” are slow to change & require specialized local supports • SW discipline is preventive • SW discipline is balanced response for problem & expected behavior • “Getting tougher” is ineffective for non-responders

  22. 1. Appropriate Behavior • Look continuously for appropriate behavior • Label appropriate behavior • Appropriate positive reinforcement

  23. 2. Prompts for desired behavior • Use effective signal/prompt • Label display of expected behavior

  24. 3. Minor, non-interfering problem behavior • Remove attention • Wait for desired behavior, then reinforce • Positively reinforce other-student displays of desired behavior • Prompt expected behavior • Use positive reinforcement

  25. 4. Minor, interfering problem behavior • Signal error or problem behavior • Remind ask student for expected behavior • Display/practice expected behavior • Positively reinforce • 1 & 2

  26. 5. Repeated minor problem behavior • Identify context/setting when problem behavior likely • Conduct FBA • Develop BIP • 1 & 2

  27. 6. Classroom managed major • Develop precorrection plan • Teach/practice desired behavior • Conduct FBA • 1 & 2

  28. PRECORRECTION • Identify & analyze setting in which problem behavior most likely • Triggers & function • Expected & acceptable behaviors • BEFORE • Modify setting • Check-in w/ student • (Re)teach & remind • Reinforce • Re-direct • DURING • Monitor & reinforce • Re-direct • AFTER • Reinforce • Revise, (re)teach, remind

  29. 7. Office managed problem behavior • Follow school & district disciplinary procedures • 1 & 2

  30. REMEMBER • Be business like; use “teaching” voice • Stick to protocols, procedures, agreements • Work as team w/ non-responders • Use data for decisions • Anticipate & pre-correct • Reinforce at high rates, continuously

  31. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound • Person-centered planning • TERTIARY PREVENTION ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • SECONDARY PREVENTION • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Positive reinforcement • Effective instruction • Parent engagement • PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students

  32. ESTABLISHING A CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound/PCP • Specially designed instruction Audit Identify existing practices by tier Specify outcome for each effort Evaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectiveness Eliminate/integrate based on outcomes Establish decision rules (RtI) ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach & encourage positive SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Effective instruction • Parent engagement ~80% of Students