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CLOTHING PowerPoint Presentation


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  2. Grainline A line drawn on the pattern to indicate the direction of pattern placement on the fabric. Grain refers to the direction of yarn in a fabric. Lengthwise yarns runs parallel to the selvedge and crosswise yarns runs perpendicular to the selvedge.

  3. Off-Grain Distorted fabric grain. It occurs when the filling yarns (weft) are not perpendicular to the selvage or fabric edge. When a garment is "off-grain," the true grain does not fall perpendicular to the floor. Off-grain On-grain

  4. Warp Yarns that run parallel to the selvages and perpendicular to the floor. Also called end yarns or lengthwise grain. Warp yarn

  5. Weft Yarns that run perpendicular to the selvage and parallel to the floor. Also called filling yarn or crosswise grain. A weft knit is made with the yarns running horizontally across the fabric. Weft yarn

  6. Thread Count Number of yarns per square inch of woven fabric both horizontally and vertically is known as thread count.

  7. Yarn/Thread Continuous strand of fibers twisted together by a process of spinning. The thread/yarn is used to make a fabric.

  8. Parallel Extending in the same direction and at the same distance apart at every point. Perpendicular Lines at right angles to each other, such as a T.

  9. Selvage The narrow, finished edges of the fabric along both lengthwise sides of all uncut woven fabrics. Selvage

  10. Bias Any direction that is not the lengthwise or crosswise grain of a woven fabric. True Bias Fabric direction that occurs at a 45-degree angle to the lengthwise and crosswise grains of woven fabrics. Has the highest degree of stretch of any woven fabric direction.

  11. The highest point or tip of the bust. Apex

  12. Dart A triangular fold made in the fabric to lay the fabric flat on the body curves. The fold tapers from a seam to point to the fullest part of the body. It is used to create shape and control fullness.

  13. The point at which the dart tapers to an end. Apex of a Dart

  14. Basic Block It is a simple pattern that fits the body with just enough ease for movement and comfort. Basic pattern do not have seam allowances and the darts are cut away. The basic pattern for female has five pieces - Bodice front, Bodice back, Skirt front, Skirt back and Sleeve

  15. ArmscyeThe armhole of a garment. The armhole part of the pattern. Armscye

  16. Drafting A method for making patterns on paper or on the computer using measurements.

  17. Draping A 3-dimntional process of designing where the fabric is directly draped on the dress form and converted to desired design.

  18. Edge Stitching A row of machine stitching placed very close to a seam or garment edge. Stitching may be up to ¼" away from the edge. Edge Stitching

  19. Gathers A series of small tucks of fabric, controlled and held in place by stitches and providing visible fullness.

  20. Shirring Permanent, parallel rows of gathers made in the body of the garment

  21. Gore Vertical division within a garment, usually tapered panels, narrower at the upper edge than the lower edge, seamed together to add fullness to a garment. May be functional or decorative. Hand General term for the way the fabric feels when it is touched, moved, or squeezed with the hand.

  22. Interfacing Supporting fabric usually hidden between the garment and its facing. Lends body, shape and reinforcement to limited areas of the garment such as button and buttonhole plackets, waistbands, collars and cuffs. Pressing Cloth A piece of cotton, linen, or wool cloth used to protect the garment from steam and/or heat when pressing during construction. It is placed between the iron and the garment being pressed.

  23. Nap Shaded or directional design that requires all parts of the garment to be cut in the same direction. May result from the print or weave of the fabric or the way the fabric is made. Velvet, corduroy, and plush are fabrics with nap. Notches Small cuts (slits or wedges) made in the edges of garment pieces to aid in correct assembly. On home-sewing patterns they are shown as dark triangles or diamonds.

  24. Pile A plush or shaggy surface on a fabric resulting from loops or ends of yarn or fiber projecting above or below the surface of the fabric. Fabric with pile has nap.

  25. Placket A finished opening in a garment section, e.g. at the cuff of a shirt or the neckline of a golf shirt.

  26. Pleat Fold of fabric, folded back upon itself so that the pleat is comprised of three layers. Pleats may be partially stitched or pressed down. Kinds of pleats include: knife pleats, box pleats, inverted pleats, and accordion pleats.

  27. Baste A temporary method of holding two or more layers of fabric together by sewing by hand or machine with long stitches.

  28. Seam Allowance Seamline Line of stitching in a garment Narrow width between the seam line and the raw edge of the fabric. Seam allowances vary depending on where they occur on the garment and the manufacturers' specifications. Home sewing patterns generally have a 5/8" seam allowance except at hems. Commercial patterns generally use 1/4" to1/2" except at hems.

  29. Mitering The process of seaming or folding a corner diagonally for sharper, less bulky corners. Clip A small cut in the seam allowance, almost to the stitching, used to spread or ease the outer edges of curved seams

  30. Raw Edge Any unfinished cut edge of fabric. Ruffle Decorative, gathered, or pleated strips of fabric or ribbon sewn to the garment.

  31. Serging Edge finish or seam made on an overlock machine (called a serger in home sewing). Used to prevent raveling or as decorative stitching on the right side of the garment. Also called Overlocking. Stay stitching A row of stitching used to stabilize the edge of a single layer of fabric, typically on the bias.

  32. Yoke Horizontal division within a garment. Small, flat panel of fabric usually at shoulder, waist, or midriff. Often found on the back of Oxford-style shirts.

  33. Tuck Bar Tack A stitched fold of fabric. Decorative tucks are stitched on the right side of the fabric. Tucks used to create shape are stitched on the inside to a designated point and released A group of overlapping or very closely touching stitches used to reinforce small areas of a garment that might experience strain during normal wear. The tops of pockets are often bar-tacked on each side

  34. Woven Fabric Structure Fabric produced on a loom by the interlacing or weaving of a crosswise yarn (weft) through a lengthwise yarn (warp)

  35. Non-Woven Fabric Any fabric that is bonded together rather than knit nor woven, such as felt.

  36. Knit Fabric Structure Fabric made by a process of interlocking loops from a single continuous yarn. Patterns in the fabric are made by changing the arrangement of the basic stitch.

  37. Design Ease Extra ease (or sometimes less ease) as compared  to wearing ease that gives a garment its style. The difference between "slim" jeans, "regular fit" jeans and "loose fitting" jeans is design ease. Embroidery Decorative stitching, made by hand or machine, used to form designs and patterns.