landmark outreach fitchburg state college instructor charles l newhall n.
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Comprehension Skills in the Content areas

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Comprehension Skills in the Content areas

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  1. Teaching Comprehension and Understanding Landmark Outreach & Fitchburg State College Instructor: Charles L. Newhall Comprehension Skills in the Content areas

  2. Comprehension Seminar Agenda • What’s the BIG idea? • Introductions • Reflection & Individual Case Studies of Teaching Comprehension Skills • Setting Individual and Collective Goals & Objectives • Comprehension Skills Defined • Artifact and Primary Source Learning

  3. Schedule • 8:30 – 10:00 Session I • 10:00-10:15 Break • 10:15-11:30 Session II • 11:30-12:30 Lunch • 12:30-2:00 Session III • 2:00-2:15 Break • 2:15-3:00 Session IV

  4. Course Goals & Objectives • To learn and understand current theories of learning and comprehension • To read and reflect on current scholarship • To experience comprehension-centered lessons • To create practical lessons which use comprehension-centered exercises • To share and learn from each other about comprehension

  5. Day One Agenda • Session One • 21st Century teaching & learning • Skills-based, Content-rich teaching & learning • Session Two • Learning Styles & Differences • Defining Comprehension Skills • Session Three • Multisensory Comprehension Learning: Inferences & Images • Using Primary Sources in the Content Areas • Session Four • Understanding by Design

  6. Comprehension • How do YOU define comprehension? • Can comprehension be taught? • What are comprehension strategies? • How do we create comprehension-centered lessons?

  7. 21st Century Skills Robinson is the author of Out of Our Minds Sir Ken Robinson: Changing Educational Paradigms

  8. Is there just too much information and too many new ideas to comprehend? • Version 4.o • Shift Happens

  9. Daniel Pink’s “R-Directed” Thinking

  10. Toward Wise Thinking • “We need to provide students with educational contexts in which they can formulate their own understanding of what constitutes wise thinking. In other words, teaching for wisdom is not accomplished by telling students about wisdom, but rather, by letting students actively experience wise decision making.” • Sternberg, Robert J. et al. (2009): 106.

  11. Scaffolding & Case Studies • “Toward this end, teachers can provide scaffolding for the development of wisdom and case studies to help students develop wisdom, but a teacher cannot teach particular courses of action or give students a list of dos and don’ts.” • Sternberg, Robert J. et al. (2009): 106.

  12. The New Bloom’s Taxonomy

  13. Interactive 2.0 Bloom’s For Interactive Bloom’s, click here.

  14. What’s NEW in the NEW Bloom? • Action Words! • Focus on the cognitive process • Knowledge is now “Remembering” • “Comprehension” is now “Understanding” • “Synthesis” is now “Evaluating” • “Evaluation” is now “Creating”

  15. Kinds of Comprehension • Visual • Auditory • Kinethetic • Emotional • Environmental • Reading • Graphing • Interpreting • Exemplifying • Classifying • Summarizing • Inferring • Comparing • Explaining • Predicting • Executing (Source: Mary Forehand)

  16. The Cognitive-Knowledge Grid Oregon State Model of Bloom’s Taxonomy with definitions, click HERE. Four Levels of Knowledge • Factual Knowledge • Conceptual Knowledge • Procedural Knowledge • Meta-Cognitive Knowledge

  17. Constructing Meaning • “The current concepts of learning view students as active participants in the learning process. Students select the information to which they attend and construct their own meanings for the selected information.” • Source: LearnWiki article

  18. Content-Rich & Skills-Based • All teaching involves teaching content and skills. • We need to be as aware of the skills we are teaching as we are of the content we are uncovering and helping students to make their own.

  19. Content-Rich Curriculum • Cognitive • Sequential • Contextualized • Diverse and Inclusive • Primary Sources • Secondary Sources • Multiple Points of View • Textual • Visual

  20. Skills-Based Curriculum • Gathering Ideas and Information • Processing Ideas and Information • Expressing Ideas and Information

  21. Gathering Ideas & Information • Listening Skills • Margin Notes • Underlining • Identifying Key Ideas • Discriminating Information for less important details • Summarizing • Paraphrasing • Questioning • Predicting • Cornell Notes • Annotating • Reading different kinds of maps, charts, and graphs • Reading photographs, cartoons, art work, etc. • Researching • Identifying urls • Using search engines • Using bibliographical lists • Using Dewey & LOC card catalogues • Using Reference books and web sites

  22. Processing Ideas & Information • Separating facts and opinion/judgment • Categorizing • Outlining • Identifying Cause and Effect • Drawing Valid Conclusions • Diagramming (Venn) • Webbing (Inspiration) • Analyzing • Synthesizing • Developing a thesis • Organizing supporting evidence

  23. Expressing Ideas & Information • Writing: process, narrative, analytic, persuasive, creative • Developing questions • Crafting a topic sentence • Crafting a thesis statement • Crafting an introduction and conclusion • Oral Presentations • Debates • Role Play Simulations • Table-top/poster Projects • PowerPoint Projects • Documentary Film Projects • Web Page Projects

  24. Kinds of Instruction • Direct/Explicit Instruction • Lectures • Teacher Modeling • Scaffolding • Demonstrations • Inquiry-based Instruction • Simulations • Hands-on Projects • Debates • Movingbeyond the either/or model of the teacher-centered versus the student-centered classroom to the concept-centered classroom.

  25. Comprehension Lessons • Gardner Reading • Sternberg Reading • UbD Framework • Comprehension, Gathering & Processing Information & Ideas through Notetaking Strategies • Comprehension Unit • Castle-building • Comprehension Unit • Fateful Years: A Performance-based assessment • Reading Next • TeachingComprehension wiki

  26. Pearson’s Model

  27. Learning Styles & Comprehension • Multiple Intelligences • Gardner • “Approaches to Understanding” • Teaching for Wisdom • Sternberg • “thinking reflectively” • “thinking dialogically” • “thinking dialectically”

  28. Gardner’s “Approaches to Understanding” • Narrational • Quantitative/Numerical • Logical • Foundational/Existential • Aesthetic • Hands-On • Social

  29. Sternberg Thinking Styles • Legislative • Executive • Judicial • Monarchic • Oligarchic • Anarchic • Global-Local • Internal-External • Liberal-Conservative

  30. Comprehension in the Content Areas Comprehension LESSONS

  31. Reflection on Comprehension • How has your understanding of comprehension evolved today? • How do “high level” formulations of comprehension (Gardner, Sternberg) help to focus our lesson planning? • What comprehension skills have you considered today? • What comprehension strategies will you take away from today’s seminar?

  32. Towards Understanding • Are you developing a more sophisticated and useful understanding of comprehension? • Are there topics/issues that you want to be sure get addressed? • Are your goals for the course being met? • Do you have a comprehension project/unit/lesson you are considering developing? • Do you have a student outcome that you want to work on for your project?

  33. Two Online Resources • Teaching Comprehesion wikispace • Concept to Classroom (PBS Channel Thirteen NYC)

  34. From Gathering & Processing to Expressing • Direct/Explicit Instruction to Inquiry-based Instruction • Kinds of Intelligences – this is metacognition! • The Design Process • Writing & Comprehension • Research & Comprehension • Simulations & Comprehension

  35. Six Facets to Build Assessments • Can explain • Can interpret • Can apply • Sees in perspective • Demonstrates empathy • Reveals self-knowledge • Source: Understanding by Design, 163-164 and see also the Rubric on pages 178-179

  36. Building a Unit/Lesson • Identify Desired Results • Determine Acceptable Evidence • Plan Learning Experiences • Use the sample 6-page template on pages 327-332: This is your MODEL for your lesson. • Use the Charts in UbD • On Page 257 for Entry Points • On page 184 • On pages 193-194

  37. Develop an Essential Question • “Reporter” questions • Higher level questions (New Bloom) • Topical vs. Overarching

  38. Concluding Thoughts • Writing Next framework • Research Skills • Structured Research to Structured Writing • Lesson Planning • Using WHERETO • Using Uncoverage • Check for Understanding • Reflecting on Comprehension

  39. Chinese Proverb I hear, I forget. I see, I remember. I do, I understand.