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S.D.C. SOCIETAS DOCTRIN Æ CHRISTIANÆ. † The word of God was made flesh. w w w . s d c . m e . u k. The English Martyrs. The English Martyrs. 1534 onwards

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w w w . s d c . m e . u k

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  1. S.D.C. SOCIETAS DOCTRINÆ CHRISTIANÆ † The word of God was made flesh w w w . s d c . m e . u k

  2. The English Martyrs

  3. The English Martyrs • 1534 onwards • A large number of Catholics - priests, religious, lay people who where executed under the reign of King Henry VIII or Queen Elizabeth I … …for openly proclaiming and defending their Roman Catholic faith in different ways.

  4. The English Martyrs HENRY VIII Married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon (Spain) Quarrelled with Church and remarried. Had daughter – Elizabeth Had a son – Edward – from third marriage to Anne Seymour • After Henry's death, Edward ruled from 1547 to 1553 (aged 10 to 16), and was Protestant. • After his death, Mary (born 1516) ruled from 1553 to 1558, and was Roman Catholic.

  5. The English Martyrs QUEEN ELIZABETH I • Ruled from 1558 to 1601, at first tried to be a moderate Protestant, to avoid conflict . • In 1570 Pope issued some new rules for Catholics only to take part in Latin mass and receive sacraments from catholic priests and not recognizing Queen Elizabeth. • English government reacted by declaring that the saying of Mass in Latin was treason. • Persecution started.

  6. The English Martyrs EARLIER CLASSIFICATION • Blessed (Beati) - 63, priests, religious or lay people. • Venerables Many other people who died heroically. Their lives were so retired and obscure that there is generally but little known about them. • The forty-four dilati Those "put off" for further proof. Many who perished after a comparatively short period of imprisonment, though definite proof of their death is not available. • The prætermissi (242) - Martyrs on the scaffold. - Martyrs in chains. • The eleven bishops: left to die in prison.

  7. The English Martyrs CANONISED SAINTS In 1970 Pope Paul VI Canonised 40 of the English Martyrs (33 English; 7 Welsh) – some clergy, some lay people who suffered martyrdom between 1535 and 1679. • 19 men and women who belonged to religious orders. • 14 secular priests. • 4 laymen. • 3 lay women.

  8. The English Martyrs CANONISED SAINTS Members of Religious Orders

  9. The English Martyrs CANONISED SAINTS Secular priests and lay people

  10. The English Martyrs ST NICHOLAS OWEN • Born around 1550. • Devoutly Catholic family. • Grew up in the midst ofthe Penal Laws. • Became a carpenter. • For many years he built hiding-places for priests in the homes of Catholic families. • Became a member of the Society of Jesus as a lay brother. • First arrested in 1582 after the execution of Edmund Campion, for publicly proclaiming that martyr's innocence, but was later released.

  11. The English Martyrs ST NICHOLAS OWEN • Arrested again in 1594 and tortured. • Arrested again in 1606 in Worcestershire. • Submitted to terrible "examinations" on the Topcliffe rack. • Died under torture without betraying any secret in 1606. • Feastday: 22nd March.

  12. The English Martyrs ST ROBERT SOUTHWALL • Born c. 1561; brought up a Catholic. • Moved to Paris. • In 1580 he joined the Society of Jesus after a two-year novitiate passed mostly at Tournai, France. • Prefect of studies in the Venerable English College at Rome • Ordained priest in 1584. • Sent to England in 1586 as a Jesuit missionary • Also became a religious poet/writer.

  13. The English Martyrs ST ROBERT SOUTHWALL • Arrested after six years working with catholic families. • Repeatedly put to the torture in the vain hope of extracting evidence about other priests. • Imprisoned for three years in the Tower of London – tortured ten times. • Moved to ‘hole’ in Newgate prison.

  14. The English Martyrs ST ROBERT SOUTHWALL • Accused of treason - sentenced to death. • Hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn on 20th February 20, 1595.

  15. The English Martyrs ST MARGARET CLITHEROW • "The Pearl of York": Born as Margaret Middleton (York, c. 1556). • 1571 married to John Clitherow – a butcher who later became chamberlain of York. • Became a Roman Catholic at age 18. • During this time of Elizabeth’s reign laws were being passed, forbidding the Catholic mass and other faith practices.

  16. The English Martyrs ST MARGARET CLITHEROW • Had three children, the third probably while she was in prison. • She regularly held Masses in her home in the Shambles in York. conflict of loyalties: religion and husband/family “Behind all her gaiety, she lived with a sword in her heart”

  17. The English Martyrs ST MARGARET CLITHEROW • In 1586, she was arrested and accused in court for the crime of harbouring Roman Catholic priests. • Margaret Clitherow was martyred at the age of around 33 in 1586 - put to death by being crushed under a large door loaded with heavy weights. • Feastday: 26th March.

  18. S.D.C. SOCIETAS DOCTRINÆ CHRISTIANÆ † The word of God was made flesh w w w . s d c . m e . u k

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