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KOH3333 PERUBAHAN & KOMUNIKASI (Unit 4-6) rosli8@pd.jaring.my

KOH3333 PERUBAHAN & KOMUNIKASI (Unit 4-6) rosli8@pd.jaring.my. Unit 4 Konsep & Teori Perubahan Unit 5 Impak Perubahan terhadap ICT Unit 6 Budaya Korporat dan Perubahan. Unit 4 Konsep & Teori Perubahan. What is "Organizational Change?"

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KOH3333 PERUBAHAN & KOMUNIKASI (Unit 4-6) rosli8@pd.jaring.my

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  1. KOH3333PERUBAHAN & KOMUNIKASI(Unit 4-6)rosli8@pd.jaring.my

  2. Unit 4Konsep & Teori PerubahanUnit 5Impak Perubahan terhadap ICT Unit 6Budaya Korporat dan Perubahan

  3. Unit 4Konsep & Teori Perubahan

  4. What is "Organizational Change?" Typically, the concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change, as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person, modifying a program, etc. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission, restructuring operations, new technologies, mergers, major collaborations, "rightsizing", new programs such as Total Quality Management, re-engineering, etc. Some experts refer change as organizational transformation. Often this term designates a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates.

  5. What Provokes "Organizational Change"? Change should not be done for the sake of change -- it's a strategy to accomplish some overall goal. Usually organizational change is provoked by some major outside driving force (e.g. substantial cuts in funding, address major new markets/clients, need for dramatic increases in productivity/services, etc). Typically, organizations must undertake organization-wide change to evolve to a different level in their life cycle, e.g., going from a highly reactive, entrepreneural organization to more stable and planned development. Transition involving a new chief executive can provoke organization-wide change when his or her new and unique personality spread through the entire organization.

  6. Why Organization-Wide Change Difficult to Accomplish? Typically there are strong resistances to change; 1. People are afraid of the unknown. 2. Many people think things are already just fine and don't understand the need for change. 3. Many are inherently cynical about change, particularly from reading about the notion of "change" as if it's a mantra. 4. Many doubt there are effective means to accomplish major organizational change. 5. There are conflicting goals in the organization, e.g., to increase resources to accomplish the change yet concurrently cut costs to remain viable. 6. Organization-wi change often goes against the very values held dear by members in the organization, that is, the change may go against how members believe things should be done.

  7. How Organization-Wide Change Best Carried Out? Successful change must; 1. Involve top management, including the board and chief executive, who initially instigates the change by being visionary, persuasive and consistent. 2. Be initiated by a change agent who is responsible to translate the vision to a realistic plan. 3. Involve team-work effort. 4. Be communicated frequently and to all organization members. 5. Sustain and involve the modification of organization structures, including strategic plans, policies and procedures.

  8. …Cont’d 6. Involve continuous, increased and sustained communications and education. For example, the leader should meet with all managers and staff to explain reasons for the change, how it generally will be carried out and where others can go for additional information. A plan should be developed and communicated. Plans do change. That's fine, but communicate that the plan has changed and why. Forums should be held for organization members to express their ideas for the plan. They should be able to express their concerns and frustrations as well.

  9. Strategies for Managing Change 1. Educate the leaders of change, including both CEOs and managers. 2. Use a "systems" approach to ensure that all aspects of the organization are considered when planning and implementing change. 3. Use a team approach that involves many stakeholders in the change process. 4. Share power with managers and others to encourage the implementation of the change efforts. 5. Make plans, but "hold your plans loosely." Develop plans, but know that they will have to be adapted to change as needs change.

  10. Cont’d …Cont’d 6. Realize that there is a tension between establishing readiness for change and the need to get people implementing new approaches quickly. While getting people intellectually ready for change is something to be considered, it should not take so much time and effort that people lose interest and motivation. 7. Provide considerable amounts of training and staff development for those involved. These activities can include everything from holding QCC (quality control circle) group to "on-the-dash" coaching. 8. Choose innovative practices for and with managers that are research-based and "office friendly." Picking approaches that have been used or researched can help the implementation of those approaches. 9. Be prepared for "implementation test." It was noted that things often get worse temporarily before improvement begins to appear.

  11. …Cont’d 10. Recognize that change happens only through people. The emotional effects of change on managers need to be considered and understood by all involved in the change process. Understanding resistance and working with it is key factor to change implementation. 11. Help managers and others develop an "intellectual understanding" of the new practices. While the outcomes are important to assess, people also need to understand the underlying meanings and functions of the practices. 12. Seek out "paradigm shifters" and "idea champions" who are interested in making substantial changes in practice. 13. Take the long view; realize that change takes time and should not be forced to occur too quickly.

  12. Some General Guidelines to Organization-Wide Change There are a few other basic guidelines to keep in mind; 1. Consider using a consultant. Ensure the consultant is highly experienced in organization-wide change. Ask to see references and check the references. 2. Widely communicate the potential need for change. Communicate what you're doing about it, what was done and how it worked out. 3. Get as much feedback as practical from employees, including what they think are the problems and what should be done to resolve them. If possible, work with a team of employees to manage the change. 4. Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the sake of change. Know why you're making the change. What goal(s) do you hope to accomplish?

  13. …Cont’d 5. Have someone in charge of the plan. 6. Plan the change. How do you plan to reach the goals, what will you need to reach the goals, how long might it take and how will you know when you've reached your goals or not? Focus on the coordination of the departments/programs in your organization, not on each part by itself. 7. End up having every employee ultimately reporting to one person, if possible, and they should know who that person is. Job descriptions are often complained about, but they are useful in specifying who reports to whom. 8. The process won't be an "aha!" It will take longer than you think.

  14. Cont’d …Cont’d 9. Delegate decisions to employees as much as possible. This includes granting them the authority and responsibility to get the job done. As much as possible, let them decide how to do the project. 10. Keep perspective. Keep focused on meeting the needs of your customer or clients. 11. Take care of yourself first. Organizational change can be highly stressful. 12. Don't seek to control change, but rather to expect it, understand it and manage it. 13. Include closure in the plan. Acknowledge and celebrate your accomplishments. 14. Read some resources about organizational change, including new forms and structures.

  15. Some of the reasons why senior management do not support change; 1. They are short term results oriented and most change processes take a long time to achieve results. 2. Managers relate best to quantitative financial results, while most change processes either produce qualitative results or do not translate the results to dollars. 3. Many senior managers do not understand the critical nature of their role in the change process, or what they have to do to visibly support the change. 4. Senior managers often see the change process as a "project or program" rather than an all encompassing and ongoing process.

  16. Theory of Change 5 variables that influence change: efficacy present discomfort preferred alternative future emotional security internalization of responsibility

  17. Present Discomfort You must have a need for something to be different.

  18. Internalization of Responsibility You must realize change is your job, and not the work of others.

  19. Emotional Security This can have different meanings at different stages of development, but generally includes safety, identity, attachments, trust in others etc.

  20. Efficacy You have the power and ability to influence outcomes.

  21. Preferred Alternative Future You must hope for a different future that is worth working for.

  22. Quoted from “The Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli, 1515 A.D. “It follows that an acceleration in the rate of change will result in an increasing need for re-organization. Re-organization is usually feared, because it means disturbance of the status quo, a threat to people’s vested interests in their jobs, and an upset to established ways of doing things. For these reasons, needed re-organization is often deferred, with a resulting loss in effectiveness and an increase in costs.”

  23. Communication Channels The medium is the message. -Marshall McLuhan

  24. The SMCR Selection Model • Are needs of the sender compatible with the attributes of the intended message? • Are the messages sent compatible with the channels used? • Are the sender’s needs compatible with the channels used? • Are the messages compatible with the receivers’ needs? • Are the channels utilized compatible with the receivers’ needs?

  25. Implications • Most effective knowledge-sharing occurs face-to-face • Some channels focus more attention on the message, others on the people • Different channels require different skills • Writing fosters critical thinking • Speed often trumps completeness

  26. … Cont’d • Channel choices affect power relationships • Different channels fill particular niches • Channel choices send symbolic messages • Senders & receivers often evaluate channel effectiveness in different ways

  27. Unit 5Impak Perubahan terhadap ICT

  28. IMPAK PERUBAHAN GLOBAL KE ATAS KOMUNIKASI Apa dia Perubahan Global? Berdasarkan perspektif ekonomi, perubahan global atau globalisasi secara ringkas dirujuk sebagai situasi di mana barangan, wang, dan manusia bergerak merentasi sempadan antarabangsa secara bebas tanpa sekatan dan halangan.

  29. Komunikasi dalam Era Globalisasi? “Komunikasi yang berlaku apabila manusia terlibat dalam perundingan global, bekerja dalam syarikat yang mengeksport produk dan perkhidmatan, berinteraksi dengan pelanggan dan klien antarabangsa dalam perkampungan global secara siber atau secara konvensyenal - Tidak ada sesiapa yang terkecuali dan tiada siapa yang boleh menghalang proses globalisasi”.

  30. Sejarah Globalisasi? 1. Tamadun nomadic (1.5 juta tahun dulu) 2. Tamadun agrarian (sebelum 8000BC) 3. Tamadun transisi (8000BC-1750AD) 4. Tamadun perindustrian (1750-1971) 5. Tamadun informatic (1971-sekarang) yang berasaskan knowledge industries dengan orientasi k-economy.

  31. Ciri Individu Manusia dalam Era Globalisasi? “Individu tanpa maklumat tidak boleh melaksanakan tanggungjawab; Individu yang diberi maklumat tidak dapat membantu tetapi mampu menjalankan tanggungjawab”.

  32. Ciri Manusia dalam Era Globalisasi (Kes Amerika) • Terdapat 1275 associate di seluruh dunia • 73% memiliki pendidikan peringkat kolej dan universiti • Bertutur dalam lebih 15 bahasa • Berada di 90+ negara yang berlainan

  33. Asas Komunikasi Keorganisasian dalam Era Perubahan Global (Rujukan Komunikasi Kemanusiaan) 1. Intrapersonal 2. Interpersonal 3. Kumpulan kecil 4. Keorganisasian 5. Publik ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6. Massa (aplikasi ICT)

  34. Fenomena Komunikasi Keorganisasian dalam Era Perubahan Global • Pengantarabangsaan Komunikasi. • Terdapat lambakan maklumat. • Sumber dan penerima berkomunikasi secara interaktif. • Penglibatan komunikasi secara silang-fungsi. • Maklumat adalah komoditi.

  35. …Sambungan • Substance lebih diutamakan berbanding rhetoric. • Struktur maklumat bukan dikuasai oleh sumber tetapi penerima. • Jurang maklumat antara komunikator adalah luas. • Wujud komunikasi yang bersifat convergence dan divergence.

  36. Komunikasi Convergence • Mesej komunikasi membawa masyarakat ke satu arah. • Perlakuan komunikasi membentuk satu corak institusional yang seragam. • Aplikasi ICT mewujudkan kesamaan tindakan antara masyarakat. • Penghomegenan sikap, nilai, perlakuan, gaya, muzik dan selainnya.

  37. Komunikasi Divergence • Globalisasi & modenisasi mentransfomasi maklumat kepada masyarakat dalam bentuk yang berlainan. • ICT digunapakai bagi tujuan dan matlamat yang berbeza di antara budaya. • Komponen komunikasi (bahasa, budaya, dll) menjadi faktor penghalang kepada convergence.

  38. Impak Perubahan Global terhadap Komunikasi • Ruang komunikasi tiada sempadan. • Sumber komunikasi yang kaya dan berpengaruh akan memonopoli proses, mesej dan alatan komunikasi. • Wujud pendominasian komunikasi. • Tahap pengkayaan dan pemerolehan maklumat meningkat secara drastik dan mendorong perubahan perlakuan. • Peningkatan taraf hidup.

  39. Premis Komunikasi Global • Perspektif ekonomi - Unit fundamental ekonomi adalah individu dan bukan corporation => ketrampilan komunikasi individu menentukan kejayaan. • Modenisasi = modem + isasi. • Perkampungan global tanpa sempadan dalam ruang siber.

  40. Ciri Keorganisasian dalam Era Perubahan Global • Organisasi bersifat virtual. • Organisasi sentiasa berubah => stail dan jenis komunikasi turut berubah. • Budaya organisasi mempengaruhi kepelbagaian komunikasi. • Pekerja organisasi rapat dengan pelanggan dan secara signifikan saling berhubungan secara elektronik.

  41. …Sambungan • Organisasi berkongsi teknologi dan maklumat. • Pekerja organisasi dari pelbagai budaya. • Pekerja part-time lebih “diutamakan”. • Pekerja bersifat “tidak setia”. • Wujud nilai yang dinamik dalam organisasi. • Organisasi lebih mengutamakan servis sebagai komoditi utama.

  42. Elemen yang Mempengaruhi Perubahan Komunikasi Keorganisasian • Struktur organisasi • Strategi pengurusan • Komunikator • Persekitaran • Proses dan prosedur

  43. 1. Struktur organisasiPerhubungan antara unit atau komponen organisasi menentukan fungsi dan tanggungjawab komunikasi. 2. Strategi pengurusan Matlamat komunikasi organisasi ditentukan oleh tindakan bersistematik dan peruntukan sumber.

  44. 3. KomunikatorSetiap kakitangan yang bertanggungjawab mengurus maklumat dianggap sebagai sebahagian produk dan jenama serta berfungsi sebagai ambassador organisasi. 4. Persekitaran Rekabentuk organisasi mempengaruhi komitmen komunikasi.Dimensi rekabentuk organisasi melibatkan budaya, ruang, masa dan sempadan.

  45. 5. Proses dan prosedur • Proses sosial dalam organisasi yang melibatkan pendekatan perundingan, agihan kuasa dan politik organisasi mempengaruhi kejayaan komunikasi. • Proses operasional yang melibatkan sistem maklumat, proses pembuatan, belanjawan dan proses kawalan mengelakkan salahfaham komunikasi.

  46. Kritik terhadap Komunikasi dalam Era Perubahan Global • Jurang komunikasi semakin luas antara negara maju dengan membangun; sumber yang bermaklumat dengan penerima yang kurang maklumat. • Wujud penjajahan maklumat oleh negara kaya terhadap negara miskin melalui proses pengintegrasian dan perkongsian yang dianggap sebagai “non-colonial”.

  47. Pendekatan Integrasi “Non-Kolonial” • Pengambilalihan tanggungjawab penstrukturan pembangunan ICT oleh pakar (dari negara maju & kaya?) melalui perkongsian teknologi dalam semua aspek pembangunan menggunakan platform latihan, pendidikan, kerjasama dan sebagainya.

  48. Halangan Komunikasi Keorganisasian terhadap Perubahan Global • Halangan organisasi - dalaman. • “Perunding” yang berbeza beroperasi di negara yang berbeza - konflik kepentingan. • Halangan budaya. • Halangan bahasa. • Isu keselamatan.

  49. Strategi Pemerkasaan Komunikasi Era Globalisasi • Perkongsian maklumat/mesej secara adil bagi peningkatan ilmu secara sejagat. • Pengurangan monopoli komunikasi. • Komunikasi berfungsi sebagai katalis untuk mewujudkan rasa hormat dan kepercayaan untuk berkongsi ilmu. • Ketrampilan komunikasi individu menjadi asas ketrampilan organisasi.

  50. Halangan akan Datang • Kepelbagaian fahaman politik dan ideologi. • Penglobalisasian enteprais domestik. • Ekspektasi pengguna yang meningkat. • Infrastruktur komunikasi yang lemah.

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