Plastic Waste Management Submitted by: HarshaDhanuka Md.AsadHussain NibeditaSinha ShewtaKumari Khushboo Shah
Plastics- the main issue • Plastics are very useful material; however-- • Plastic wastes from packaging create problems in their disposal and they are littered around. • There are no organized effort of segregation and collection. • Disposed plastics carry bags cause choking of drainage. • Recycled plastic bags and containers used for dispensing foodstuffs cause public health and hygiene concern. • Units not equipped with environmentally sound techniques mainly do recycling and reprocessing of plastics.
Sources of plastic wastes • Municipal sources that include residential, markets, commercial establishments, hotels and hospitals. • Distribution and industry sector like food and chemical industries, packing films, etc. • Other sources include automotive wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes construction debris etc.
Categories of Plastic wastes • Thermo plastics- contains 80% of the plastic wastes generated in the country include PET, HDPE, LDPE, PVC, PS, PP, etc. • Thermo Set Plastics- constitute 20% of the plastic wastes-thermo set plastics are non recyclables and contains alkyd, epoxy, ester, melamine, formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde, silicon, urea formaldehyde, polyurethane etc..
Plastic Waste Management in India. Recycling technology have been classified into 4 general categories : Primary recycling - involves processing of a waste /scrap into a product with characteristics similar to those of original product. Secondary recycling - involves processing of waste/scrap plastics into materials that have characteristics different from those of original plastics product. Tertiary recycling - involves the production of basic chemicals and fuels from plastics waste/scrap as part of the municipal waste stream or as a segregated waste. Quaternary recycling - retrieves the energy content of waste/scrap plastics by burning/incineration. This process is not in use in India.
Plastic Identification Not every plastic bag or plastic product can be recycled. Once the plastic arrives at the recycling plant, the company engineers inspect the plastic type as recycling plastic is a convoluted practice. Mixed plastic or poor quality plastic or drawstring bags can’t be recycled. Engineers at the plant sort out the plastic bags and plastic products before taking them into consideration for a possible recycling.
Washingthe impurities After the engineers identify the type of plastic and considers it worthy for a recycling, it is separated and taken into the next level, where it is cleaned. The washing process starts with removing the labels on plastic products, laminated bags or any other labeled product of plastic. Once the labels are removed the other impurities and adhesives are removed. Until and unless these impurities are removed the quality of recycled plastic wouldn’t improve
Tearing of the plastic In the third stage, the waste plastic is loaded onto the conveyor belt that takes the plastic bags directly towards rotating metal teeth that tears the plastic into small pieces. The same plastic pieces are bagged up and passed through a stringent quality check.
Re-identification of the plastic grades Once the shredded plastic is passed through a stringent quality and chemical test, the plastic pieces are labeled differently as per the quality of plastics and its grade. Certain Grade plastics extracted from drawstring bags or plastic products are blended with virgin plastic and taken to the next level of recycling.
Extruding The last stage of the recycling process involves melting the clean plastic pieces and extruding into the form of pellets. These pallets are then sent to the manufacturing unit, where they are manufactured with the next lot of plastics. The next lot of plastic is then converted into wonderful plastic products we use in our daily lives.
State specific initiatives Few states in India have also instituted state laws to minimize plastic waste. Himachal Pradesh was the first to formulate a state rule to protect the state from plastic waste menace which is followed by Goa, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra etc.