FACULTY OF INFORMATICS DEVELOPING Business Model for geo-location database for the operation of cr in the tvws bandsthe8th IEEE conference on standardisation and innovationin information technology Authors: Gintarė Sukarevičienė VladislavV. Fomin 25thseptember2013, sophia-antipolis
OUTLINEoverviewofthepresentation • PART 1. A bit of background and motivation. • PART 2. DevelopmentofBusinessModelforGeo-locationDatabasefortheoperationsofCognitiveRadiointhe TV WhiteSpaceBands. • SUMMING-UP.
A bit of background and motivationwireless communications • Wireless communications have become one of the most exciting services in the history of technology: • bringing substantial benefits to the industry and individual users; • changing the way we communicate and perform our daily routines. • Preceding the technology and service globalization trend, the related regulations moved from national to the international domain – globalization of wireless communications services required the development of technology standards, pushing ICT-related standards development to become one of the dominant activities in the international standardization arena.
A bit of background and motivationRADIO SPECTRUM SHORTAGE PROBLEM The growth of wireless services (information and communication technologies have been among the fastest growing and innovating technologies in both production and use during the four past decades, and the prospects for future growth appear equally bright) Growing need for radio spectrum (the shortage of the enabling resource) • Radio spectrum – a medium for wireless communication, but it is not being used efficiently due to the existing administrative rules for spectrum use and technological imperfections.
A bit of background and motivationNew generation for wireless communications • Cognitive Radio (CR) is a promising technological and service conceptof much more efficient use of spectrum, butto enable CR intelligence in wireless communications, not only end-user devices must be made capable of supporting the required novel communication techniques – the existing wireless infrastructure and administrative rules for spectrum assignment and management must also be re-designed. Cognitive Radio Systems (CRS) – a radio system employing technology that allows the system to obtain knowledge of its operational and geographical environment, established policies and its internal state; to dynamically and autonomously adjust its operational parameters and protocols according to its obtained knowledge in order to achieve predefined objectives; and to learn from the results obtained (ITU 2009).
A bit of background and motivationDynamic spectrum management • Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA): • a set of techniques and technologies to improve the performance of a communication network as a whole (ZhaoandSadler 2007); • enabler of infrastructure for Cognitive Radio communications. • Development of the DSA infrastructure requires: • creating a functional techno-economic systems which would mesh together administrative, business, technological, and utility elements. Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) – an essential principle of organization of the needed technological solutions for and administration of spectrum access.
A bit of background and motivationCR-based telecommunications market • DSAinfrastructure development effort: • a large number of technology standards; • a large number of administrative and business practices (or norms). • A promise to bring forth the necessary optimization of modern telecommunications networks and services with regard to the spectrum efficiency and lowering of entry barriers.
A bit of background and motivationextant radio telecommunications paradigm • Specific operational principle of the extant radio telecommunications paradigm: • technology-service-resource association: each communication system had an assign frequency band, and each wireless device „must have one RF module (and related antennas) for each wireless communication system being supported like GSM/UMTS, RFID, GPS, DVB-H or FM-radios“ (Kloch et al. 2009, 4). • Development of novel technologies usually is seen from the perspective of single standard development initiative.
A bit of background and motivationsuccess of previous generation of telecommunications systems • GSM – the 2nd generation (2G) mobile telephony system – likely the most often quoted success story of the European telecommunications policy and market developments; • 1 and 3 G telephony systems – studied and referred to as single standard initiatives. changes not only in consumer practices, but also created truly global telecommunications arena with regards to the manufacturing, operation, and regulation
A bit of background and motivationEuropean ICT market • European ICT market has been oriented towards common standards and user services: • 1984 European Council's (EC) Recommendation 84/549/EC, to „stop fragmentation of the European market, to help users to have cheap prices, and to help European industry to have a wide market“; • 1987 and 1990 EC's Green Paper outlining a common approach in the field of tele- and satellite communications. Development of the new paradigm in telecommunications – that based on CR/DSA principles – requires departing from „one service – one standard“mindset
A bit of background and motivationmain regulatory and standardization bodies for CR and DSA • Recognizing the importance of the DSA, many (if not all) major SDOs and relevant regulatory organizations have embarked on developing standards or defining norms and regulation for one or another aspect of CR-related telecommunications: • CEPT – harmonization of the regulatory requirements; • ITU – coordination of shared global use of the radio spectrum, development of worldwide technical standards; • ETSI – responsible for most of the European telecommunication standardization activities; • EC – definition and implementation of regulatory environment, development of radio spectrum policy, conformity assessment and market surveillance; • IEEE – foster technological innovation, excellence for the benefit of humanity; • ECMA – standardization of information and communication systems • IETF – production of high quality relevant technical documents.
A bit of background and motivationsources of complexity in standardization of DSA-related technologies • Factors contributing to the complex setup: • the ambiguity with regards to what exactly consumers and markets will be served by CR standards; • the fact that CR application requires horizontal interoperability between (and harmonization of) different technology standards, business practices, and regulatory policies; • the convergence of previously distinct markets with one another, such as e.g., telephony, Internet, and TV broadcasting. • This convergence - not just technological in nature, but in fact compromises four different domains: • institutional; • technological; • functional; • infrastructural (DelaereandBallon 2008)
A bit of background and motivationthe case of CR/DSA standardization • Success of DSA infrastructure development will require not only technical standardization, but different (many) horizontal and vertical coordination efforts (DelaereandBallon, 2008); • Standardization processes currently being carried out under the banner of CR/DSA seems to be decentralized, chaotic – due to this traditional economic and management theories are not likely to be of help (NickersonandZurMuehlen, 2006); • The advent of DSA-supporting infrastructure and CR-enabled telecommunication services, more than the previous generations of telecommunications, will integrate and embed significant technological innovation (Lyytinen, keil, andFomin 2008).
A bit of background and motivationStudyof a highlycomplexphenomenom Adoption of reductionism approach (system analysis and modeling according to the common logic of System Design (SD)) Generation of scenarios of infrastructural development ex ante, which can have a very positive impact on the standards development coordination processes and reduce uncertainty about possible bottlenecks and risks
A bit of background and motivationcEntral role of standards in DSA infrastructure • Figure 1. Key elements of DSA infrastructure and the central role of standards in it
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBGDB APPROACHES • Informatics-only solutions for GDB:
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBIDENTIFICATION OF GDB SCENARIOS • Figure 2. GDB servicedeploymentscenarios (adaptedfromBarrie M.ClassificationofBusinessScenariosforSpectrumSening, 2010)
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBprosandconsofGDB SCENARIOS • Unlicensed scenario + introduction of GDB for the operation of CR in the TVWS - problem to the existingcommunication patterns • “One to all” scenario +/- generalized GDB that supports all databases • Market scenario +/- allowance to specific bands to be tradable • Flexible scenario +/- flexible bands (flexible operator) +/- flexible services (flexible user)
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBBUSINESS MODEL FOR GDB MATRIX (1) • outsource-based configuration, the main role is played by third party, which is aided by administrator who develops and operates GDB • operator-based configuration, the main role is played by operator, although available channels are managed by GDB • broker-based configuration, TVWS broker distributes available channels to various service providers • user-based configuration, the main role is played by the users’ devices (TV WSDs) in handling available channels • Figure 3. BM for GDB matrixbasedontwoparameters (adoptedfromBarrie M. (2010)
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBBUSINESS MODEL FOR GDB MATRIX (2) • Figure 4. Business Model for GDB matrix from the factors point of view
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBMOST VIABLE BUSINESS MODEL CONFIGURATIONS PER SCENARIO (1)
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDB MOST VIABLE BUSINESS MODEL CONFIGURATIONS PER SCENARIO (2)
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBMOST VIABLE BUSINESS MODEL CONFIGURATIONS PER SCENARIO (3)
Developmentofbusinessmodelfor GDBMOST VIABLE BUSINESS MODEL CONFIGURATIONS PER SCENARIO (4) • Outsource-based Business Model configuration stands the best chance of being implemented in the future: • Figure 5. Outsource-basedconfigurationof „one-to-all- scenario
SUMMING-UPQ&a section • TVWS is today’s way to solve spectrum scarcity problem. Successful deployment of TVWS spectrum cannot be achieved without standards and assured protection from interference from other services in the TVWS band, as well as from licensed communication services in adjacent bands. • Deployment of GDB as tool ofcontrol mechanism for enabling CR services in the TVWS band seems to have emerged as a preferred tool both in Europe and the US. • While technical realizations of GDB for TVWS already exist, there is no established business practice in operating GDB-based CR services in the TVWS band. • Our work can help promote the introduction of novel wireless communications services, as it is often the lack of business-side knowledge which holds European national regulatory agencies from opening up TVWS band for secondary services. Thank you for your attention! • Forfurtherenquiringpleasecontact: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com