Personality • Psychodynamic Theories • Humanistic Theories • Trait Theories • Social-Cognitive Theories • Exploring the Self
Psychodynamic Theories • Freud’s psycho analytic perspective: Exploring the unconscious • The Neo-Freudian and later psychodynamic theorists • Assessing unconscious processes • Evaluating Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective and modern views of the unconscious
Psychodynamic Theories • Exploring the Unconscious • View of personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences SIGMUND FREUD (1856–1939) “I was the only worker in a new field.”
Psychoanalysis • Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions • Unconscious • According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories • According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware • Free association • In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, matter how unimportant or embarrassing
Personality Structure • Freud • Personality arises from conflict between impulse and restraint. • With socialization, urges are internalize through social restraints which aid in the resolution of basic conflict. • People seek to express impulses in ways that bring satisfaction without guilt or punishment.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploringthe Unconscious • Freud • Specialized in nervous disorders after medical school • Theorized that mind contained large unconscious region where feelings and ideas were repressed • Used free association to help patients find and release forbidden thoughts
Personality Structure • Id • Unconscious psychic energy thatstrives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates gratification • Ego • Largely conscious, “executive” part that balances the demands of the id, superego, and reality; operates on reality principle • Superego • Represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future goals FREUD’S IDEA OF THE MIND’S STRUCTURE
Personality Development • Freud’s psychosexual stages • Children pass through stages wherein id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on an erogenous zone. • Key concepts • Oedipus complex • Electra complex • Identification • Fixation
Oedipus complex • Boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father • Electra complex • Female version of Oedipus complex • Identification • Children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos • Fixation • Lingering focus of pleasure-seekingenergies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Nagel Photography/Shutterstock Defense Mechanisms • Ego distorts reality in effort to manage anxiety through defense mechanisms • All defense mechanisms operate indirectly and unconsciously • Repression underlies all other defense mechanisms VStock/ Alamy REGRESSION Faced with a stressor, children and young orangutans may regress, retreating to the comfort of earlier behaviors.
According to Freud’s ideas about the three-part personality structure, the ________ operates on the reality principle and tries to balance demands in a way that produces long-term pleasure rather than pain; the ________ operates on the pleasure principle and seeks immediategratification; and the ________ represents the voice of our internalized ideals (our conscience).
In the psychoanalytic view, conflicts unresolved during one of the psychosexual stages may lead to ________ at that stage. Freud believed that our defense mechanisms operate ________ (consciously/unconsciously) and defend us against.
ALFRED ADLER (1870–1937) KAREN HORNEY (1885–1952) CARL JUNG (1875–1961) The Neo-Freudian and Later PsychodynamicTheorists • Accepted Freud’s basic ideas • Incorporated some Freudian ideas into psychodynamic theory; much of mental life is unconscious • Differed from Freud in two ways: • Placed more emphasis on role of the conscious mind • Doubted sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations; emphasized social interactions and other motives
Assessing Unconscious Processes Spencer Grant/Science Source • Projective tests • Reveal hidden conflicts and impulses • Provide glimpse into test-taker unconsciousness • Rorschach test • Revels what seen in series of 10 ink blots reflect inner feelings and conflicts • Lacks predictive validity and reliability THE RORSCHACH TEST In this projective test, people tell what they see in a series of symmetrical inkblots. Some who use his test are confident that the interpretation of unclear images will reveal unconscious parts of the test-taker’s personality.
The Neo-Freudian and Later PsychodynamicTheorists • Evaluating Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective and modern views of the unconscious • How do modern researchers and theorists view Freud’s psychoanalysis?
The Neo-Freudian and Later PsychodynamicTheorists • Modern research challenges the idea of repression • Sometimes people spare their egos by ignoring threatening information, but repression is a rare reaction to trauma • Extreme, prolonged stress may disrupt memory by damaging the hippocampus; more common that high stress enhance memory • There is some research support for Freud’s defense mechanism • Reaction formation • Projection/false consensus effect
The Neo-Freudian and Later PsychodynamicTheorists • The modern unconscious mind • Cognitive researchers argue that unconscious thought is part of two-track mind where information processing occurs without awareness. • Do you remember any of the research findings that confirm this view?
What are three values that Freud’s work in psychoanalytic theory has contributed? What are three ways in which Freud’s work has been criticized? Which elements of traditional psychoanalysis do modern-day psychodynamic theorists and therapists retain, and which elements have they mostly left behind?
Humanistic Theories • Abraham Maslow’s self-actualizing person • Carl Rogers’ person-centered perspective • Assessing the self • Evaluating humanistic theories
Humanistic Theories • Focused on ways “healthy” people strive for self-determination and self-realization • Asked people to report own experiences and feelings ABRAHAM MASLOW (1908–1970) “Anytheoryof motivationthatisworthyof attentionmustdeal with the highestcapacitiesof the healthy and strongperson as well as with the defensivemaneuversof crippledspirits” (Motivation and Personality, 1970).
Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person • Hierarchy of needs: Maslow’s pyramid of human needs; at the base physiological needs must be satisfied before higher-levelsafety needs, and then psychological needs, become active • Self-actualization: Psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteemis achieved; the motivation to fulfill our potential • Self-transcendence: Striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self
Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective • People have self-actualizing tendencies and are basically good. • Self-concept is central feature of personality. • Characteristics that nurture growth between any two human beings • Genuineness • Acceptance • Empathy
Unconditional positive regard • According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person • Self-concept • All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”
Assessing the Self • Questionnaires • Used by some humanistic psychologist; questioned by others as depersonalizing • Interviews and intimate conservations • Viewed by some as method to provide better understanding of each person’s unique experiences Aurora Open / SuperStock
Evaluating Humanistic Theories • Contributions • Influenced counseling, education, child raising, and management • Laid groundwork for today’s scientific positive psychology and influenced popular psychology • Criticisms • Concepts are vauge and based on personal opinion • Attitudes encouraged by humanistic psychology could lead to self-indulgence, selfishness, and lack of moral restraint. • Human capacity for evil is not recognized.
How did humanistic psychology provide a fresh perspective? What does it mean to be empathic ? How about self-actualized ? Which humanistic psychologists used these terms?
Trait Theories • Exploring traits • Thinking critically about: The stigma of introversion • Assessing traits • The Big Five factors • Evaluating trait theories
TWO PERSONALITY FACTORS AP Photo/Jean-Marc Bouju Andrew Innerarity / REUTERS
Exploring Traits • Gordon Allport • Personality described as a stable and enduring pattern of behavior • Eysenck and Eysenck • Many normal human variations can be reduced to two factors: Extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability • Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
Trait • Characteristic pattern of behavior or a tendency to feel and act in a certain way, as assessed by self-reportson a personality test • Factor • Cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together.
Which two primary dimensions did Hans and Sybil Eysenck propose for describing personality variation?
Trait Theories: Assessing Traits • Personality inventory • Involve long sets of questions covering a wide range of feelings and behaviors • Can be scored objectively; does not guarantee validity • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) • Originally designed to identify emotional disorder; also assesses personality traits
The “Big Five” Personality Factors Steve Wisbauer/Getty Images
The Big Five Factors • Big Five research has explored various questions: • How stable are these traits? • Have these traits changed over time? • Do we inherit these traits? • Do these traits reflect differing brain structure or function? • How well do these traits apply to various cultures? • Do the Big Five traits predict our actual behavior?
What are the Big Five personality factors, and why are they scientifically useful?
Evaluating Trait Theories • Person-situation controversy • Personality traits stabilize with age • Personality traits predict a person’s behavior across many different situations-average behavior • They do not neatly predict a person’s behavior in any one specific situation
Reflections Of Personality Traits • Music preferences • Bedrooms and offices • Electronic stability • Social networking • The immediate situation powerfully influences our behavior, especially when the situation makes clear demands. Karan Kapoor/Getty Images Our spaces express our personality Even at “zero acquaintance,” people can catch a glimpse of others’ personality from looking at their website, bedroom, or office. So, what’s your read on this person’s office?
Social-Cognitive Theories • Reciprocal influences • Assessing behavior in situations • Evaluating social-cognitive theories
Bandura: Reciprocal determinism • Reciprocal influences • Focus on ways in which personality traits interact with environment to influence behavior • Social-cognitive theories • Focus on this interaction with the social world
Social-Cognition Theories • Social-cognitive theorists explore the interaction among the three sets of influence: • Different people choose different environments. • Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events. • Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events.
The Biopsychosocial Approach to the Study of Personality At every moment, our behavior is influenced by our biology, our social and cultural experiences, and our thought processes and traits.
Social-Cognitive Theories • Assessing behavior in situations • Behavior is often observed in realistic situations. • These assessments may not reveal less visible, important characteristics; but they also may reveal a person’s past behavior patterns • Evaluating social-cognitive theories • Theories build from psychological research on cognition and learning. • In some instances, they predict behavior.
According to the social-cognitive perspective, what is the best way to predict a person’s future behavior?