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Potatoes

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Potatoes

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  1. Potatoes FR. Pommes de terre CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  2. Definition – SolanumTuberosum • Same Family (Nightshade) as tomato, eggplant, tobacco and belladonna! • Starchy Tubers- the thickened parts of underground stems • Starch content varies greatly between varieties • This difference affects their cooking qualities • Stems, leaves and flowers are toxic • 4th Largest Crop (After Rice, Wheat & Maize CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  3. History • Originated in Andean region of South America • 10,000 years ago • Thousands of varieties native to Peru • Introduced to Europe 50 years after Columbus • Considered Weird and Poisonous and used for its flowers • Potato Famine 1845-1846 CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  4. Fingerling Potatoes • An heirloom variety related to original Andean potato variety • Low Starch, Good for Roasting • Relatively Expensive • Substitutes: new potatoes CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  5. Purple Potatoes • Mealy, Similar to Russets CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  6. Red Potatoes • Thin Skinned • Waxy Flesh • Boil or Steam CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  7. Russet (Burbank) Potatoes • “Idaho” Potato • Baking Potato • Mealy Flesh CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  8. White Potatoes • “Chef Potatoes” • “All-Purpose Potatoes” • Waxy yellow or white flesh • Usually cooked with moist heat method or sautéing CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  9. Yukon Gold Potatoes • A type of White Potato • Yellow flesh • Creamy Buttery Texture • All cooking methods CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  10. New Potatoes • Small, immature potatoes (any) • Low Starch and waxy • High in moisture and thin delicate skin CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  11. Sweet Potatoes • A tuber, different family than potatoes • Red to Yellow Flesh • Suitable for most cooking methods • Erroneously called “yams” CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  12. Yams • A tuber, different family than sweet potatoes • White to red flesh • Asian Origin • Important in Africa and Caribbean • Less Sweet CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  13. Boniato • “Batata”, “Cuban Sweet Potato” • Latin Cuisine • White Flesh • Drier and not as sweet an sweet potatoes CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  14. Taro Root • Tapioca, Thickener • Toxic if Uncooked • Eaten like Potatoes • Also Hawaiian “Poi” CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  15. Cassava • Yucca or Manioc • Can be Toxic if Uncooked • Eaten like Potatoes • Common in many Hispanic Cuisines CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  16. WEB QUEST! • Arrowroot • Chinese Water Chestnut • Sunchoke • Jicama • Malanga CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  17. Nutrition • 100 calories • 0 fat • Fiber • Vitamin C (mostly destroyed when cooked in water) • Potassium CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  18. Mealy (Starchy) • Potatoes with a high starch content, like russets, bake well and yield light and fluffy mashed potatoes. Tend to fall apart when boiled. Waxy • Those with a low starch content, like red-skinned potatoes, hold their shape after cooking, and are great for making potato salads and scalloped potatoes. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  19. Storage • a cool, dark, dry, well-ventilated place • DO NOT refrigerate • DO NOT freeze • HANDLE carefully - potatoes can bruise • DO NOT wash potatoes until ready to peel or prepare • No sunlight CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  20. Sizes • Russets come in ten sizes, ranging from 35 count to 120 count per 50 pound box. • The most popular sizes for foodservice are 70s and 80s. • Reds, yellows and blues come in three sizes - A, B, and C, measured by diameter. A being the largest CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  21. Grades • Determines varietal characteristics (skin color and thickness), firmness, cleanliness, maturation and shape • Free from freezing, blackheart, diseases and injury • US No. 1 for baking, where appearance and shape is important • US No. 2 Potatoes which will be peeled and cut, for mashing CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  22. Discoloration • Uncooked cut or peeled potatoes will discolor due to exposure to the air. • keep cut potatoes covered with cold water until ready to use - up to two hours • Longer soaks lose water soluble vitamins CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  23. Cooking Potatoes • Select proper type for cooking method • Keep cuts and sizes similar • Keep covered in water when slicing or peeling CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  24. Baked Potatoes • Russets • No Foil! • Scrub well. Rub each potato lightly with cooking oil. • Pierce several times with a fork so steam can escape. • 325°F for 70-90 minutes CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  25. Steamed Potatoes • Reds, Whites, Yellows, Blues • Scrub well. • Steam until tender. • Pressure Steamer - 25 to 30 minutes for 6 pounds. • Convection Steamer - 40 to 45 minutes for 6 pounds. • Potatoes to be steamed can be peeled before or after cooking. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  26. “Boiled” Potatoes • All Varieties • Scrub well • Cut into quarters or even-sized pieces • Simmer not Boil CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  27. French Frying • Russets • Scrub well, peeled or not • Cut Uniform • Soak • Fry at 375°F • Drain, Season & Hold (5 min. max.) • Double Fry by blanching at 325°F first • Do not salt over fryer CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  28. Roasted Potatoes • Russets, Reds, Yellows, Whites, Blues • Scrub well, peeled or not • Cut Uniform • Toss with oil, (and Herbs) and seasoning • Roast at 425°F , 1 hour CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  29. Mashed Potatoes • Russets, Reds, Yellows, Whites, • Scrub well, peeled or not • Cut Uniform (or whole) • Start in cold water • Cook (and peel?) and then dry • Mash, Rice, Food Mill, etc. • Fold in cold butter, warm milk • Season & Hold CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  30. Sautéed Potatoes • Home Fries, Hash browns, Pommes Anna • Whites, Yellows, Reds • Scrub well • Cut Uniform (or whole) • Hold in cold water • Par cook (or use baked potatoes) CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  31. Other Cooking Methods • Microwave • Scalloped, Au Gratin • Grilled CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  32. Classic Potato Recipes • Pommes Duchesse (Duchess Potatoes) • A French mashed potato with egg yolk and piped through a pastry tube into wavy ribbons and rosettes, brushed with butter and lightly browned CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  33. Classic Potato Recipes • Pommes Anna or Anna potatoes • French dish of sliced, layered potatoes cooked in melted butter. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  34. Classic Potato Recipes • Gratin Dauphinois (Scalloped Potatoes) • Thinly sliced and layered potatoes and cream cooked in a buttered dish rubbed with garlic[ CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  35. Classic Potato Recipes • Pommes dauphine (dauphine potatoes) • Crisp potato puffs made by mixing mashed potatoes with savory choux pastry (pâte à choux), forming the mixture into dumpling shapes, and then deep-frying them CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  36. Classic Potato Recipes • Lyonnaise Potatoes • French dish of sliced pan fried potatoes and thinly sliced onions, sautéed in butter with parsley CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  37. Roots and Tubers CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  38. Beets • Colder Climates • N. European Cuisine • Borscht CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  39. Carrots • A “Taproot”, Native to Europe, SW Asia • Raw, Boiled, Fried, Steamed, and Cooked in Soups and Stews • Part of a Mirepoix • Baby Carrots DO NOT EQUAL Mini Carrots CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  40. Celery Root 0r “Celeriac” • Similar to Celery Plant • Raw, Baked or Steamed • Will Brown like Apple, Potato CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  41. Jerusalem Artichoke or “Sunchoke” • Not an Artichoke, Sunflower • Usually cooked, boiled or steamed or in a soup CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  42. Jicama • Sweet, crisp and low-calorie • Eaten raw, fried or stir-fried CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  43. Parsnips • Carrot Relative • Stronger Flavor • Parsnips & Turnips were used prior to Potato’s introduction to Old World • Parsnip Puree • Higher in Nutrition than carrot CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  44. Radish Red Icicle Daikon CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  45. Rutabagas & Turnips • Interchangeable • Cabbage Flavor • Turnips May be Hotter • Turnip Greens or “Greens” CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  46. Water Chestnuts • Asian • Eaten Raw or Cooked • Crunchy • Rumaki CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  47. Onions (the Allium Family) CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  48. Bulb Onions • White, Yellow and Red • Generally, the Larger the Sweeter • Sweet Onions (Vidalia, Maui, Walla-Walla, etc.) best for eating Fresh…Sweetness is lost in cooking, short shelf life & higher cost. • Red Onions have a Stronger Taste, cook or eat Fresh • White, & Yellow Onions good for Cooking CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  49. Shallots • Similar to Onion, but Cloves like garlic • Mild and Complex Flavor • Used in MANY classic Dishes CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  50. Scallions • Aka, green onions and, shallots sometimes. • Use of Green and White Parts • Classic Asian Dishes CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics