Briefing American Psychological Association (APA) referencing, 6th edition
General notes • What is referencing? • Aka, citing (a citation) • A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Referencing • Why reference? • Academic rigor / process • Acknowledging other’s work
When to reference? • When your work has been influenced by someone else’s work, e.g. a) directly quoting someone else work b) paraphrasing someone else’s work • Types? • Various: APA, Harvard, etc. • Components of referencing: • In-text (inside body of work/assignment) • End-text (at the end of work)
In text citation • Consists of: • author’s surname (s) (in the order that they appear on the actual publication), followed by the year of publication of the source being cited. • Page or paragraph numbers for direct quotes, and for paraphrasing where appropriate
In text … • Placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited. • If quoting or citing a source that is cited from another (a secondary reference e.g. within an article), mention the source with the secondary reference details; e.g. Cole (as cited in Le Gris, 2010). Only the secondary reference should appear in the end-text reference list.
Single author This was seen in an American study (Sheffield, 1999). OR Sheffield (1999) has argued that …. OR In 1999, Sheffield conducted a study which showed that ….
2) Two authors …. (Alder & Towne, 1996) OR Alder and Towne (1996) connotes that ….
3) Three to five authors Cite all names and publication year the 1st time, Thereafter, Only the first name followed et al. The 1st time cited: ….. (Brown, Smith & Jones, 1990). Brown, Smith and Jones (1990) …. Thereafter: …. (Brown et al., 1990) Brown et al. (1990)) ….
4) Six or more authors: Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year from the first citation. …. (Taylor et al., 2010). Taylor et al. (2003)
5) Different authors: same surname Add initials to the authors names to distinguish them. P.R. Smith (1923) to distinguish from S. Smith (1945)…. (Jones & S.A. Brown, 1961) to distinguish from (W.O. Brown & Smith, 1985).
6) Multiple authors: ambiguous citations If multiple author (3+) citation abbreviated with et al. looks the same as another in text citation similarly shortened, add enough surnames to make a distinction. …. (Brown, Smith, et al., 1998) to distinguish from (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).
7) Multiple works by same author When cited together, the author’ surname once followed by the years of each publication, separated by a comma. …. (Schuster, 1998, 1999). Schuster (1998, 1999)…
8) Multiple works by the same author AND same year • If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year, suffixes (a,b,c, etc.) are added to the year. • Allocation of the suffices is determined by the order of the references in the reference list. • Suffixes are included in the reference list and these references are listed alphabetically by the title. • If cited together, list by suffix as shown below: Smith (2002a)… later in the text …. (Smith, 2002b). …. (Smith, 2002a, 2002b).
9) If author name is given as ‘anonymous’: • Use Anonymous as the author’s name. …. (Anonymous, 2010).
10) Unknown author: • Give the first few words of the title. • If the title is from an article or a chapter, use double quotation (“…”) marks. …. The worst election loss in the party’s history (“This is the end,” 1968). • If the title is from a periodical, book, brochure or report, then use italics. …. Every communication creates opportunities for connection (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1995).
11) Corporate or group of authors • If organization is recognized by abbreviation, cite the first time as follows: … (World Health Organization (WHO), 2005) Thereafter …. (WHO, 2005) If abbreviation not widely known, give the name in full every time: … (Australia Research Council, 1996)
12) Multiple references: • List the citations in alphabetical order and separate with semicolons. …. (Le Gris, 1996; Alder & Towne, 1995; Barlow, 1990).
13) Citing specific parts of a source • For direct quote, the page number (s) must be given. • Indicate page, chapter, figure, table, etc. as specifically as possible. Use accepted abbreviations, i.e: p. for page, para. For paragraph. As noted by one writer “the most important element in health care practice” (Northouse, 1996,p.15). Northouse (1996) argued that “the most important element in health care practice” (p.15). This theory was put forward by Smith (2005, chap.7; para.3)
14) Quote from an electronic source: • Where page numbers are not provided, use paragraph numbers. …. (Clementine, 2008, para. 2)
15) Personal communication: for email and other ‘unrecoverable’ data • Personal communications are not included in the reference list. …. (S.Tang, personal communication, March 20, 2010). S.Tang (peronal communication, March 20, 2010)….
16) Citation of a secondary source (a source referred to in another publication) • In the reference list you ONLY include the details of the source you actually read. NOT THE ORIGINAL SOURCE. • In the example below, the original source would be Burgess (1978), seen cited in a paper by Bogg and Ducan (1998). …. (Burgess, 1978, as cited in Bogg & Ducan, 1998). Burgess (1978, as cited in Bogg & Ducan, 1998)… Bogg and Ducan (1998) cited Burgess (1978) as finding….
END TEXT CITATIONS Reference Lists
End-text • You must include • works cited list and • a Bibliography at the end of your report, • full details of all the works cited • Works cited/Reference List • appears at the end of the essay and includes all the works cited within the essay itself in alphabetical order by author • Bibliography • includes the wider list of works that you read as background in your research but did not reference directly in the essay
1) Single author: Seaman, D.F. (2010). Nurses’ perceptions of powerlessness in influencing ethical decisions. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 101-102.
2) Two to seven authors Adam, T., Platt, D.A. & Rooney, W.A. (2009). Legal and ethical issues in nursing. Journal of Professional Nurse, 20(4), 89-102.
3) More than eight authors Taylor, M., Bonasera, S., Flack, D., Messer, D., Hawkes, S., Monroe, L., … hammerback, S. (2010). Ethical issues in public health nursing. Nursing Ethics, 67(2), 736-744.
4) Magazine articles Author, A.A. (year, month of publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume number (issue number), page-page. Retrieved from URL. Willows, C. (2010, January). Beyond caring. Monitor on Ethics, 22(1). Retrieved from www.ethics.org/beyond.
5) Newspaper articles Author, A.A. (year, month date of publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from URL. Stokes, N. (2008, August 3). Verbal abuse of staff nurses by doctors. The Times. Retrieved from http://www.the times.com.
6) Books and book chapters General notes: • Editions: No edition information required for 1st editions. • Publication location: Publisher locations in the USA (should include the city and the abbreviated version of the state e.g. NY for New York); elsewhere in the world, include city and country. • Where more than one location is provided, use the first location listed.
a) Print book Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (year of publication). Title of book (edition). Location of publication: Publisher. Brass, J, & Sanders, G. (2009). Conflicts in nursing (5th ed.) Westport, CT: Greenwood.
b) Edited book Note: Use the author rules as listed above. Where there is an editor instead of an author, follow the author rules, but also include the abbreviation ‘Ed.’ OR ‘Eds.’ In parentheses following the editor names: e.g. Editor, A. & Editor, B. (Eds.)
Edited book cont.. Editor, A. & Editor, B. (Eds.). (year of publication). Title of book (edition). Location of publication: publisher. Grissoms, G.L, (Ed.). (2008). Caring in the community (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
c) Electronic book Note: The URL provided should be the website of the main publisher or provider. If you accessed the e-book via the catalogue, check the catalogue record to find the publisher or provider (where the full text is available from). Tip: conduct a web search – provide a URL that your readers will be able to find the book.
Electronic book (cont’..) Author, A.A. & Author, B.B. (year of publication). Title of book (edition). Retrieved from URL. Peter, J. (2007). Ethical dilemmas (2nd ed.). Retrieved from www.ethics.com/ethical/databases
d) Chapter in a print book Author, A.A. & Author, B.B. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp.xxx-xxx). Location of publication: publisher. Taylor, M. & Bonasera, S. (2009). Ethical decision-making. In D. Messer & D.Flock (Eds.), Biomedical Ethics (pp.190-202). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
e) Chapter in an electronic book Author A. & Author, B. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp.xxx-xxx). Retrieved from URL. John, E., Carrey, M. & Houston, W. (2008). The limits of suffering. In J. Simpson, K. Clarkson, & W. Smith (Eds.), Lying and deception (pp.98-112). Retrieved from http://www. Lyinginfo.co.uk/ethocs.html.
7) Generic webpage Notes: • Use n.d. (no date) where no publication date is available. • Where no author is available, transfer the organization behind the website, or the title, to the author space.
Generic webpage, cont.. Webpage: association as author. Author, A. & Author B. (year of publication). Title of work. Retrieved from URL. British medical Journal. (2009). Health care ethics. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.co.uk/ethics.
8) Other resources: a) audiovisual (videos, DVDs, music recording) Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, B. (Director). (year of publication). Title of work [type of material]. Location: publisher/Studio/Label. Woods, A., Valera, M., Price, S. & Harmon, K. (Producers & Directors) (2008). Euthanasia story [video recording]. U.K.: BBC.
Other resources: b) Blogs and online discussion boards Author, A. (year, month day). Title of post [description of form]. Retrieved from URL. Keegan, K. (2009, February 21). Moral reasoning [web-log post]. Retrieved from http://www.moraltoday.com/blog/moral -reasoning/300298.
Other resources: c) conference proceedings (ubpublished) General note: For published conference proceeding: use book chapter format for one-off publications., Presenter, A. (year, month). Title of paper or poster. Presentation session presented at at the meeting of Organization Name, Location. Capello, F., Lampard, F., Ferdinand, R. & Terry, J. (2009, October). Nursing practice in England. Presentation session presented at the International Nursing Conference, Moscow.
Other resources: d) lecture notes Author., A. (year of publication). Title of notes. Unpublished manuscript, unit code, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, united Kingdom. McManaman, S. (2007). Lecture 6: incurable cancer [PowerPoint slides]. Unpublished manuscript, OJR2902, university of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. McManaman, S. (2007). Lecture 6: incurable cancer [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from OJR2902, university of Liverpool, Liverpool online: http://liv.liverpool.edu.uk
Other resources: e) Technical report Author, A. (year of publication). Title of work (Report No.xxx). Location: Publisher. Gerrard, S. (2006). Hospital care (Report No.29, 19-32). Brisbane, Australia: Nursing and Midwifery Department, University of Queensland.
Other resources: f) Thesis Author, A. (year of publication). Title of thesis or dissertation (Unpublished Doctoral or master thesis). Name of Institution, Location. Cole, A. (2007). Ethical behaviour among final year nursing students. (Unpublished Master’s thesis). University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Details: • American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.