Brazil Hope you Enjoy!
Brazil’s Flag History • Brazil's flag is a deep green banner with a yellow diamond enclosing a night-blue, star-studded Southern Hemisphere sky. The sky depicts 27 white, five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District); the stars are arranged in the pattern of the night sky over Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1889 (this is the date when the last Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II, was deposed, and the republic was proclaimed). The stars in view include the constellationsSouthern Cross (also called Crux), Scorpius, Canis Major and others. A banner across the sky reads, "ORDEM E PROGRESSO," which means "order and progress" in Portuguese. This flag was adopted on May 11, 1992 - it was an adaptation of an earlier Brazilian flag from November 15, 1889.
Brazil’s Location • Brazil shares a border with almost every other country in South America--only Chile and Ecuador are untouched--and covers almost half the continent. It is the fifth largest country in the world, behind Russia, Canada, China, and the U.S.A., with an area of eight and a half million square kilometers.
Brazil’s Population • Despite its vast expanse of territory, Brazil's population is concentrated in the major cities of its coast. The urban sprawls of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo dominate the southern coast. Further north, towns such as Salvador and João Pessoa retain the colonial atmosphere of the early Portuguese settlers. The great interior, much of which is covered by the rainforest basin of the Amazon, remains sparsely settled. • Almost half of Brazil's territory is covered by the basin of the Amazon River and its tributaries, a region that is one of the world's largest rainforest ecologies. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of this area has suffered the effects of modernization in recent years. From the Amazon's mouth on the Pacific to Manaus, the region's bustling main city, the river is heavily traveled, and wildlife is scarce. Away from the cities and the main course of the Amazon, however, smaller tributaries lead past unspoiled habitat and traditional villages.
Population Continued • South of the Amazon region, the country's interior is dominated by the Brazilian Shield, an expansive bedrock flat that is slowly falling victim to the elements. The Mato Grosso, a smooth, grassy plain in Brazil's center, slowly gives way to the Planalto, a low-rise plateau that extends across the central and western regions. In the far west, along the border with Paraguay and Bolivia, is the Pantanal, one of the most extensive swamplands in the world.
Climate • Brazil's winter lasts from June to August, with temperatures between 13 and 18C, but it only gets really cold south of Rio. Summer is from December to February, a period frequently bringing stifling humidity to the far south. Brief rain showers are common, given Brazil's tropical climate, but the dry interior has only a few months of heavy rainfall a year. Of course, the Amazon Basin is the wettest area, with damp, moist temperatures averaging 27 C.
National anthem • The melody of the Brazilian national anthem (from Portuguese: Hino Nacional Brasileiro) was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1822 and had been given at least two sets of lyrics before a decree of 1922 gave it the definitive lyrics, by , after several changes were made to his proposal, written in 1909. In style, the music resembles early RomanticItalian music such as that of Gioacchino Rossini. • During the Imperial period (1822-1889) and in the early years of the Republic, the national anthem was usually performed with no lyrics.
Brazil’s Anthem • Hail, precious banner of hope!Hail, august symbol of peace!Thy noble presence to our mindsThe greatness of our motherland does bring. • Chorus • Take the affection enclosedin our youthful chest,Dear symbol of the land,Of the beloved land of Brazil! • 2 • In thy beauteous bosom portraitsThis sky of purest blue,The impaired greeness of these forests,And the splendor of the Southern Cross. • (Chorus) • Beholding thy sacred shadow,We understand our duty,And Brazil by its sons beloved,powerful and happy shall be! • (Chorus) • 4 • Over the great Brazilian Nation,In times of happiness or grief,Hover always sacred flag,Banner of justice and love! • (Chorus)
Brazil’s History • The Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive in the area, led by adventurous Pedro Cabral, who began the colonial period in 1500. The Portuguese reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven million. Most tribes were peripatetic, with only limited agriculture and temporary dwellings, although villages often had as many as 5000 inhabitants. Cultural life appears to have been richly developed, although both tribal warfare and cannibalism were ubiquitous. The few remaining traces of Brazil's Indian tribes reveal little of their lifestyle, unlike the evidence from other Andean tribes. Today, fewer than 200,000 of Brazil's indigenous people survive, most of whom inhabit the jungle areas.
Brazil’s History • The Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive in the area, led by adventurous Pedro Cabral, who began the colonial period in 1500. The Portuguese reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven million. Most tribes were peripatetic, with only limited agriculture and temporary dwellings, although villages often had as many as 5000 inhabitants. Cultural life appears to have been richly developed, although both tribal warfare and cannibalism were ubiquitous. The few remaining traces of Brazil's Indian tribes reveal little of their lifestyle, unlike the evidence from other Andean tribes. Today, fewer than 200,000 of Brazil's indigenous people survive, most of whom inhabit the jungle areas. • Other Portuguese explorers followed Cabral, in search of valuable goods for European trade but also for unsettled land and the opportunity to escape poverty in Portugal itself. The only item of value they discovered was the pau do brasil (brazil wood tree) from which they created red dye. Unlike the colonizing philosophy of the Spanish, the Portuguese in Brazil were much less focused at first on conquering, controlling, and developing the country. Most were impoverished sailors, who were far more interested in profitable trade and subsistence agriculture than in territorial expansion. The country's interior remained unexplored.
Brazil’s Population • Brazil has the sixth largest population in the world--about 148 million people--which has doubled in the past 30 years. Because of its size, there are only 15 people per sq. km, concentrated mainly along the coast and in the major cities, where two-thirds of the people now live: over 19 million in greater Sao Paulo and 10 million in greater Rio.
Brazil’s Language • The immigrant Portuguese language was greatly influenced by the numerous Indian and African dialects they encountered, but it remains the dominant language in Brazil today. In fact, the Brazilian dialect has become the dominant influence in the development of the Portuguese language, for the simple reason that Brazil has 15 times the population of Portugal and a much more dynamic linguistic environment.
Please answer the following questions • 1. What is the capital of Brazil? ___________________________ • 2. What ocean borders Brazil to the east? ___________________________ • 3. What is the name of the huge rainforest in northern Brazil? ___________________________ • 4. What is the name of the river that runs through this rainforest? ___________________________ • 5. In what country does this river begin? ___________________________ • 6. What is the name of the country that borders Brazil to the south along the ocean? ___________________________ • 7. In which part of Brazil is Rio de Janeiro located (northeast, southwest, etc.)? ___________________________ • 8. The Pantanal is the world's largest freshwater wetland. Is the Pantanal in the north, south, east, or west of Brazil? ___________________________ • 9. If you wanted to travel from São Paulo to Brasilia, in which direction would you head? ___________________________ • 10. Roughly how many kilometers is it from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia: 5 km, 50 km, 500 km, 5,000 km, or 50,000 km? ___________________________
Carnival in Brazil Carnival Nationwide Each city in Brazil celebrates its own unique Carnival. In many smaller cities, people gather in social clubs, in the streets, and at parties. Many cities hold parades and other community events. Each Carnival reflects the diverse cultures of Brazil. Therefore, Carnival in the north may be completely different from Carnival in the south. Regardless of where you decide to put your endurance to the test, and see just how much festivity you can possibly sustain, you are guaranteed to have an all around unforgettable experience! Click on the pictures to discover more about the unique Carnival celebrated in each city. Carnival Festivities in...- Rio de Janeiro- Salvador- Recife and Olinda
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