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Review of Nationalism

Review of Nationalism

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Review of Nationalism

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  1. Review of Nationalism • During the 1800s the countries of Europe adjusted to the effects of the Industrial Revolution. The shift from farming to city life brought widespread unemployment, poverty, crime and worker revolts. The increased food supply as well as improving medical and hygiene conditions resulted in a rapidly growing population. • During the Age of Napoleon monarchies were toppled and the Holy Roman Empire was dismantled. After Waterloo conservatives/royalists tried to RESTORE the old order, but the people wanted more control of their lives and their governments. • The middle part of the 1800s saw revolts and revolutions in all parts of Europe. The Industrial Revolution made the search for raw materials all important. This led to the Age of Imperialism.

  2. Review of Nationalism • Citizens (now equipped with the vote) had a new pride in their country -Nationalism. They believed that their culture and traditions were the best, and they began to hate the culture and traditions of their rivals. • The Industrial Revolution brought new weapons. The military of each country thought that it could defeat its rivals. This MILITARISMhelped spark World War I. • The Prussian soldier and politician - Otto Von Bismarck united German states into a powerful economic and military nation under Kaiser William I.

  3. 27.1- The Stage Is Set • Sources of conflict in Europe: • NATIONALISM • PAN SLAVISM • “Powder Keg of Europe” • Imperialism Rivalries • MILITARISM & ARMS RACE

  4. Attempts at Peace • Olympic Games • Noble Peace Prize • Woman’s suffrage • PACIFISM- Opposition to all war

  5. Entangling Alliances CENTRAL POWERS Germany/ Austria-Hungary /Ottoman Empire TRIPLE ENTENTE France/England/Russia

  6. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

  7. 27.2 The Guns of August- WWI Begins June 28, 1914- Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria- Hungary** Austria declared war on Serbia  alliances drew the other countries into war in August 1914 Schlieffen Plan

  8. Who’s to blame? England blamed Germany Belgium blamed Germany Russia blamed Austria Germany blamed Russia France blamed Germany Austria blamedSerbia Serbia blamed Austria Italy was NEUTRAL (at least at first)

  9. World War I-A New Kind of Conflict Conditions in the West Stalemate - deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other. French & English versus the Germans. FOUR YEARS of Trench Warfare. TRENCH WARFARE - trenches dug into the mud surrounded by barbed wire with built-out caves for rooms.

  10. World War I-A New Kind of Conflict • Land between the opposing trenches was called NO MAN'S LAND. Soldiers that went "over the top would be mowed down by machine guns. • Verdun & the Somme Riverwere deadly battlegrounds where 1/2 million and 1 million soldiers killed in a few months of fighting in 1916.

  11. Political Cartoon: Springtown in the Somme

  12. Elements: Winter in a Trench

  13. And….. Notice the smiley face!Imagine a sinister laugh. (Buwahahahahahahahahah!)

  14. Trenchfoot! • Fungal infection • Prolonged by long exposure to damp, cold conditions • Poor hygiene/environment • Estimated 20,000 British casualties in one yr. alone • Improved with better trench construction, rubbing grease on toes/feet, and wearing clean, dry socks

  15. Let’s take another look! (Buwahahahahahahahahah!)

  16. A brighter moment of the war… The Christmas Truce of 1914

  17. The Christmas Truce • December 24, 1914 • German front lines decorated for the season • Christmas trees and Chinese lanterns • Germans walked toward British trenches • “Hello, I want to talk to you!” • Enemies drank toasts • Exchanged products (jam, coffee, chocolate, etc…) • One group of Germans played soccer with Scots in kilts

  18. Modern Weapons Poison Gas (Mustard Gas) & Gas Masks Armored tanks/machine guns/barbed wire Submarines (U-boats) used to sink merchant ships to break up supply lines. Traveled in CONVOYS Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare led to the end of US neutrality Airplanes and zepplins used at first for observation, then loaded with bombs.

  19. Global Conflict • Eastern Front: Russia had few modern weapons. Millions of poor Russians died. • Other war zones: Southern Europe / Middle East / Asia & Africa “Imperialist” outposts.

  20. TOTAL WAR: How war affected life at home • Total war: the channeling of all of a nation’s resources into the war effort. • Rationing: using coupons to get food and gas • Propaganda: spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause. • Women: contributed to war effort

  21. Losses in War

  22. Sacrifices in War

  23. The body of an allied soldier lies in the road. Rats and other vermin quickly devoured any exposed flesh.

  24. "In Flanders Fields" is one of the most famous poems written during World War I and has been called "the most popular poem" produced during that period.[1] It is written in the form of a French rondeau. Canadian physician and Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae wrote it on May 3, 1915, after he witnessed the death of his friend, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer, only 22 years old, the day before. The poem was first published on December 8 of that year in the London-based magazine Punch.

  25. In Flanders fields the poppies blowBetween the crosses, row on row,That mark our place; and in the skyThe larks, still bravely singing, flyScarce heard amid the guns below. We are the dead. Short days agoWe lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,Loved, and were loved, and now we lieIn Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe:To you from failing hands we throwThe torch; be yours to hold it high.If ye break faith with us who dieWe shall not sleep, though poppies growIn Flanders fields. • — Lt.-Col. John McCrae (1872 - 1918)

  26. 27.4: Winning the War

  27. America Enters the War! (Finally) And provides a much needed: - Upset of forces. - Morale boost. - End to the long stalemate.

  28. P.S. The U.S. was the world’s strongest economy and largest creditor. Some might call this war profiteering.

  29. Sinking of the Lusitania • May 7, 1915 • German submarine sank British passenger ship • Killed 1,198 people (128 U. S. citizens) • Ship allegedly carrying ammunition/ weapons (true) • President Wilson and American public outraged • Germany agreed to stop attacking neutral and/or passenger ships • Agreed to surface, allow neutral passengers to escape to lifeboats

  30. Back to 1917… • Return to submarine policy = gamble • German naval blockade hoped to starve Britain into defeat before America mobilized. • Wrong! • Sank 3 American ships after U. S. President Wilson gave warnings • Bad move… • Then...

  31. Zimmerman Telegraph (1917) • British intercepted telegraph • Arthur Zimmermann (Germany’s foreign secretary to German ambassador in Mexico) • If Mexico became ally to Germany, then Germany would help Mexico “reconquer” lost land in the United States. • Texas, New Mexico, Arizona • Last Straw for U.S. • U.S. declared war on April 6, 1917

  32. Zimmerman Telegraph: Coded

  33. Zimmerman Telegraph: Decoded

  34. Telegraph = Last Straw • U. S. sympathies already high • U.S. has a bond with Great Britain. • Common ancestry, language • Similar democratic institutions, legal systems • True (and false) reports on German atrocities • Stirred anti-German sentiment • ($) Strong economic ties to Allied Powers ($)

  35. Quotes from President Wilson “We have no selfish ends to serve.” “…To make the world safe for democracy.” “… a war to end war.”