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Working with the Command- Line Interface

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  1. Working with the Command- Line Interface Chapter 14

  2. Overview • In this chapter, you will learn to • Explain the operation of the command-line interface • Execute fundamental commands from the command line • Manipulate files and folders from the command line

  3. Historical/Conceptual • IBM invented the PC in the late ’70s but needed an operating system • Digital Research had an OS but turned them down • IBM went to a small company (Bill Gates at Microsoft) that had created BASIC • Microsoft had never written an OS but accepted the challenge • Gates found an OS called Quick-and-Dirty-Operating-System (QDOS) and purchased it from the person who wrote it • Microsoft released it as MS-DOS V 1.1 (Microsoft Disk Operating System) • MS-DOS 6.22 ultimately released in 1994 • DOS used a command-line interface

  4. IT Technician CompTIA A+Technician Deciphering the Command-Line Interface

  5. Command-Line Interface (CLI) • How does a command-line interface work? • Begins with a prompt indicating the computer is ready to do something • Type in a command and press ENTER • The command is executed • A new prompt is displayed—ready for the next command • CLI executes commands like the Windows GUI • In CLI, type the command and press ENTER • In GUI, point and click to execute commands

  6. Accessing the Command Line • In Windows 2000 use the Run dialog box • Start | Run • Type cmd • You may also access the command line through the Start | All Programs menu

  7. The Command Prompt • The command prompt is always focused on a specific folder • Any commands operate on the files and folders in the folder in which you are focused • You must first focus on the drive and folder where you want to work

  8. Filenames and File Formats • Each program or piece of data is stored as a file on the drive • Filenames have two parts • Filename • In DOS, up to 8 characters long • Extension • In DOS, up to 3 characters long • Optional • The filename and extension are separated by a dot • Called the 8.3 naming system • These characters may not be used / \ [ ] | ÷ + = ; , * ?

  9. Filenames and Formats • Windows does not restrict the filename to 8.3 (can be up 255 characters) • To be backward-compatible with DOS you need to follow the 8.3 standard • Windows creates two filenames for every file to ensure backward-compatibility • The extension tells the computer the type of file • .exe, .doc, .xls

  10. File Formats • All files written in binary format • American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) used for text • Universal file format • Defines 256 8-bit characters • Unicode • Uses 16-bit code to cover every character for the most common languages

  11. ASCII Character Chart

  12. Drives and Folders • At boot, Windows assigns partitions and a drive letter • Floppy drives are usually assigned A: or B: • Hard drive partitions may be assigned C: to Z: • CD-ROM drives are named after hard drives • Windows uses a hierarchical directory tree • Files are put into groups called folders • In DOS we call folders directories • The root directory is at the beginning of the hierarchical structure with folders underneath

  13. Folders and Files • Folders and files must be unique • Can’t be the same name in the same folder • C:\ represents the root directory of C • To describe a subfolder, add the name of the folder • C:\TEST • The location of a file is called the path • The path of C:\test\file.txt is C:\test

  14. Directory Tree

  15. Mastering Fundamental Commands

  16. Structure: Syntax and Switches • The command line requires the exact syntax for each command • Type the name of the command and desired or allowed switches • Switches modify the behavior of the command • Multiple switches may be allowable • DIR /W /PDisplays the directory in wide mode and one page at a time

  17. Help • Help with any command is readily available in one of three ways • HELP gives a one-line description of each command • HELP commandgives specific help for the command • Command /? gives specific help for the command

  18. DIR Command • The DIR command lists the contents of a particular directory • The DIR/W command lists only the filenames

  19. DIR Command Switches

  20. Directories: CD Command • The CD (or CHDIR) command is used to change the focus to a different directory • The CD\ command is used to return to the root directory • CD .. Goes up one directory • To switch between drives, type the drive letter followed by a colon • C: • D:

  21. Making and Removing Directories • The MD (or MKDIR) command is used for creating a directory • The DEL command is used for deleting files, and the RD (RMDIR) command is used for deleting directories and subdirectories • The DELTREE command is used for deleting directories containing files and subdirectories

  22. Running a Program To run a program: • Change the DOS focus to the directory where the program is stored CD C:\Program Files\My Program • Type the filename with or without its extension and press ENTER Setup.exe

  23. Working with Files

  24. Working with Files • Attributes (H, R, S, A) are special values assigned to a file • Hidden: hides the file • Read-only: protects a file from being deleted or modified • System: identifies system files • Archive: identifies files that have not been backed up • The ATTRIB.EXE program is used to inspect and change file attributes

  25. Attrib • Attrib can be used to change the attributes • Use + to add attribute • Use – to remove attribute Attrib +R AILOG.TXT Makes it read only Attrib –H AILOG.TXT Makes it no longer hidden

  26. Working with Files Wildcards: • Wildcards are special characters that enable commands to act on more than one file at a time • The * represents any number of characters • The ? represents a single character DIR *.TXT Lists all files that end in .TXT DIR *.?XT Lists all files that end in XT

  27. Working with Files • REN command is used to rename files • DEL and ERASE commands are used to delete files • COPY command is used for making a copy of the file in a new location • MOVE command is used for moving the file to a new location • XCOPY command is used for working with multiple directories

  28. Mike’s Five-Step COPY/MOVE Process • Point the command prompt to the directory containing the files to be copied or moved C:\> CD \DOCS 2. Type COPY or MOVE and a space C:\DOCS> COPY 3. Type the name(s) of the file(s) to be copied/moved and a space C:\DOCS> COPY *.doc 4. Type the path of the new location for the files C:\DOCS> COPY *.doc c:\Steam 5. Press ENTER

  29. Working with Batch Files • Batch files are text files that store a series of commands • One command on each line • Batch files use the .BAT extension • Batch files may be edited with any text editor • Notepad • EDIT • Batch files get their own type of icon

  30. EDIT • EDIT is a command-line command that starts a basic text editor

  31. Creating a Batch File • Using EDIT, type in some commands on their own line (such as cd:\ and Dir) • Save the file with a .BAT extension • C:\test.bat • Launch a command prompt and run the batch file C:\> CD \ C:\> Test.bat

  32. Additional Commands • Some additional commands are • VER shows the current version of Windows • ECHO tells the batch file to put text on the screen • TYPE displays the contents of a batch file on the screen • SET display settings that Windows has loaded by default

  33. ECHO Command • ECHO will display text on the screen • ECHO OFF turns off the display of text on the screen • @ at the beginning of a line prevents displaying the command, but not the result of the command • @ECHO OFF is frequently used in batch files to “clean up” the appearance when the batch file is run

  34. SET and PATH Commands • SET will display the list of settings that Windows loads by default • Programs (and batch files) are run from the location where the prompt is • If the program is not located in the current folder, you receive an error message • To tell your command to look in other places, use the PATH command • PATH by itself lists the current list of places to look for a program • PATH= location; location; location; … will add locations

  35. Beyond A+

  36. Using Special Keys • F1 function key brings back the previous command one letter at a time • F3 function key brings back the entire command at once • The DOSKEY command stores a list of all previously typed commands and can be accessed by using the up arrow key • Type DOSKEY • Windows XP/2000 automatically starts the program

  37. COMPACT Command • COMPACT • Displays or alters the compression state of files • compact /c

  38. CIPHER Command • CIPHER • Displays or alters the encryption state of files • /e specifies encryption operation • /a says to apply it to the files as well as the directory