LITERACY PRESENTATION Prefixes and Suffixes Children need to realize that many of the big words they encounter while reading are just words they already know with parts added to the beginning (prefixes) and parts added to the end (suffixes).
A Prefix Lesson Framework We teach all the prefixes using the same structure. We begin with words containing the prefixes students already can read and spell and have meaning for. We use these known words to establish the pattern and then move to less familiar words. We include examples of words in which the prefix has a discernable meaning and others in which the prefix helps with pronunciation and spelling. For example the prefix re can mean “back” or “again” The first prefixes we teach should be the most familiar to students and have the highest utility. Four prefixes, un, re, in (and im, ir, il meaning ”not”, and dis, account for 58 percent of all prefixed words. Add 16 more prefixes en/em, non, in/im, over, mis, sub, pre, inter, fore, de, trans, super, semi, anti, mid, and under you can account for 97 percent of all prefixed words. Children who can read, spell and attach meaning to these 20 prefixes will have a jump start on decoding, spelling, and meaning of multisyllabic words. Literacy Presentation
A Suffix Lesson Framework Suffixes, like prefixes, are predictable indicators of pronunciation and sometimes signal a meaning relationship. The meaning signaled by suffixes, however is not usually a meaning change, but rather a change in how and in what position the word can be used in the sentence. Compose is what you do. The composeris the person doing it. A composition is what you have once you have composed. Students need to realize that there are slight pronunciation changes in root words when suffixes are added. They also need to become aware of how words change when they are signaling different relationships. For example words ending in er may have comparative meaning: Suffixes, s/es, ed, and ing account for 65 percent of suffixed words. Add ly, er/or, ion/tion, ible/able, al, y, ness, ity, and ment and you account for 87 percent of the words. Learning to read, spell and understand how meaning is affected for a relatively small number of suffixes gives readers a huge advantage with multisyllabic words. Literacy Presentation
Suffix/Prefix Activity I Have… You Have… This activity can be played with two or more students. First student chooses an apple that has a suffix or prefix on it and announces “I have…” and attaches it to the apple tree. Ex “I have prefix re” The student then randomly chooses another student to pick a root word, after the root word is chosen the first student announces “You have…” and attaches it beside the prefix or suffix Ex. “You have view” Then the first student announces the new word “Review” The student that was chosen by the first student now gets to choose a suffix or prefix and the activity continues in the same way until all students have had a chance to announce “I Have… You Have…” Literacy Presentation