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Visually Impaired Presentation

Visually Impaired Presentation

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Visually Impaired Presentation

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  1. Visually Impaired Presentation Sandra L. Smith Mrs. Brown EDU 3311 – Special Programs

  2. Visually Impaired • Definition: Visual impairment is a general term for a visual loss that affects learning in a school environment. • For legal purposes, children are divided into two groups on the basis of their ability to use the visual sense for learning after maximum correction. They are either blind or have low vision.

  3. Causes of Visual Impairments • A wide variety of conditions can cause serious impairments in children from birth to age 5. The potential causes include hereditary conditions, infectious diseases, cancer, injuries, and various environmental conditions. One of the most common infectious diseases is Rubella (German measles) contracted by the mother during pregnancy. Rubella can cause serious birth defects, mental retardation, and hearing loss, in addition to visual problems, but improved control measures and education have combined to reduce the percentage of children blinded by this and other infectious diseases.

  4. Additional Causes of Visual Impairments • Another major cause of visual impairment is retinopathy of prematurity (formerly called retrolental fibroplasia). This disorder was widely believed to be caused by the over administration of oxygen to premature infants in an attempt to save the life of a child who was threatened by other conditions. However, the condition appears to be more complicated. For example, it seems to be associated with low birth weight as well.

  5. Prevalence of Visual Impairments • Children with visual impairments qualify as having a low-incidence disability and make up a very small percentage of the school population. There are only about four of these children for every ten thousand students (U.S. Department of Education, 2003) so it would be very difficult to cluster them for instructional purposes unless at a state school for the blind. Other impairments sometimes coupled with this impairment are cerebral palsy, mental retardation, autism, and so on.

  6. Learning • Children with low vision have difficulty accomplishing visual tasks, but they can learn through the visual sense by the use of various special technologies and teaching techniques. • A child who is blind cannot use vision for learning but still can be responsive to light and darkness and may have some visual imagery.

  7. Famous Blind People • Helen Keller-American Author and Philanthropist (born June 27, 1880 in Tuscumbia, Alabama) who became blind as the result of an undisclosed illness when she was 19 months old. • Louis Braille-Inventor of Braille (born in 1809 in Coupvray near Paris) became blind as the result of an accident when he was 4 years old. • Dr. William Moon-Inventor of the Moon System of Reading which became part of the National Institute for the Blind (born in Kent in 1818) lost his eyesight at age 21 after being partially sighted for throughout his childhood.

  8. Tools for the Visually Impaired • Special Software Programs and Closed CircuitTelevisions (CCTV’s) enlarge the text on a screen until it is large enough to read. • Computerized Speech Systems read text directly from the screen to the user. The text on the screen can be converted into Braille that is displayed directly onto a specially adapted keyboard and read by touch. (This is one way to access the world-wide web). • Audio Description which helps people with sight problems enjoy Television, DVD’s or the Theatre because it describes what is happening when there is no dialogue, so that people with sight problems can follow the action.

  9. Facts about Visual Impairment • Vision is a function of the sensation and perception of light. • Visual impairment can hamper cognitive development. • Visual impairment calls for major efforts in vocabulary development. • Students with visual impairments may tend to spend more time in sedentary activities than their sighted peers. • There is a need for programs that prepare students with visual impairments for adult life.

  10. Leviticus 19:14 • “Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumblingblock before the blind, but shalt fear thy God; I am the Lord.” • It is important to let children take control of a task once they demonstrate an ability to do so.

  11. Bibliography • Educating Exceptional Children (12th edition) by Kirk, Gallagher, Coleman & Anastasiow (2009 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning) • www.rnib.org