Minerals • A mineral: • occurs naturally • Is inorganic • Is solid • Has a crystal structure • Has a definite chemical composition
Minerals • There are 3000 minerals. • 100 are common. • 20 minerals make up most of the rock’s of Earth’s crust (rock-forming minerals).
Mineral Formation • Minerals form through: • Crystallization of melted materials. • Crystallization of materials dissolved in water.
Crystals • Repeating patterns of a mineral’s particles that form a solid.
Minerals • All minerals contain certain elements in definite amounts. • Most minerals are compounds (two or more elements). • Silver and gold are considered minerals.
Mohs Hardness Scale Talc 1Gypsum 2Calcite 3Fluorite 4Apatite 5Feldspar 6Quartz 7Topaz 8Sapphire 9Diamond 10 The Mohs hardness scale ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest.
Density—mass per unit volume (specific gravity)
Fluorescence Minerals that glow under ultraviolet light.
Magnetism Magnetism occurs naturally in some minerals, such as magnetite.