CHAPTER 3 Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development
Social Contexts andSocioemotional Development Contemporary Theories Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory
Bronfenbrenner’s theory focuses on the social contexts in which people live and the people who influence their development. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Microsystem:direct interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and others Mesosystem:linkages between microsystems such as family and school, and relationships between students and peers Exosystem: experiences insettings in which a child does not have an active role influence the child’s experiences Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d
Macrosystem: the broader culture in which students and teachers live. Chronosystem: the sociohistorical conditions of a student’s development. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological TheoryTheory into Practice Sid’s father left his family years ago and provides no support for them. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participation in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father Q.1:What aspects of Sid’s microsystem are discussed in the example?Explain. Q.2:What aspects of Sid’s exosystem are discussed in the example?Explain.
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological TheoryTheory into Practice Sid’s father left them years ago and provides no support for the family. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participate in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father. Q.3:How is the mesosystem currently operating for Sid? Explain.
Bronfenbrenner’s Theory in the Classroom • Think about children embedded in several environmental systems and influences • Attend to connections between school and families • Recognize the importance of community, culture, and socioeconomic status
Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory • Development proceeds in stages • Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisis • Stages reflect the motivation of the individual
8 - Integrity vs. despair 7 - Generativity vs. stagnation 6 - Intimacy vs. isolation 5 - Identity vs. identity confusion 4 - Industry vs. inferiority 3 - Initiative vs. guilt 2 - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 1 - Trust vs. mistrust Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Human Development
Developed through consistent love and support Independence fostered by support and encouragement Developed by exploring and accepting challenges 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust 0–1 years 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt1–3 years 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt3–5 years Erikson’s Human Development Stages
4 - Industry vs. Inferiority6 years–puberty 5 - Identity vs. Role ConfusionAdolescence Mastery comes from success and recognition Exploration of different paths to attain a healthy identity Erikson’s Human Development Stages
Identity Diffusion Identity Foreclosure Identity Moratorium Identity Achievement Adolescents have not yet explored meaningful alternatives or made commitments Adolescents have made a commitment without exploring alternatives Alternatives have been explored but commitments are absent Alternatives have been explored and commitments have been made Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity
Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity • Isaac, an adolescent, enjoys music and has always done well in math and science. He has explored career options in music, math, and science. As a result of reading, talking with counselors, and meeting with people employed in each field, Isaac has decided to pursue a career in statistics. Which identity status best fits Isaac?
Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity • Marsha has spent very little time thinking about career options, but she knows that she wants to be an electrical engineer, just like her mother and father. Her school counselor is concerned because Marsha shows little interest in math and science. However, her parents are very proud. They assume that Marsha will begin to enjoy math and science once she gets to college. Which identity status best describes Marsha?
Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity • Benjamin is a high school student who enjoys art classes more than any other classes. He also loves photography. He would like to pursue a career doing something creative. He would also like to work with people. He has thought about becoming an art teacher, photographer, or art historian. He is still thinking about his career, but has not made a final decision. Which identity status best describes Benjamin?
Erikson’s Human Development Stages 6 - Intimacy vs. IsolationEarly adult years 7 - Generativity vs. StagnationMiddle Adulthood 8 - Integrity vs. DespairLateAdulthood Form positive, close relationships with others Transmitting something positive to the next generation Life review and retrospective evaluation of one’s past
Erikson’s Human Development Stages • Erika is experiencing some indecision. She has to choose what college to attend, whether to go away from home, what career to choose, and whether to room with someone she knows. According to Erikson’s life-stage development theory, in what stage is Erika?
Erikson’s Human Development Stages • Andrea created a picture of an aquarium, which she plans to give to her teacher to hang in the classroom. Andrea was very excited at the idea that her teacher would hang up her picture on the wall, especially because the reason Andrea had made it was to show her teacher she could draw all sorts of fish from memory. In which of Erikson’s stages do children realize that they can obtain the recognition of teachers and parents by producing things?
Erikson’s Human Development Stages • Chase’s mom thinks it’s better to let her infant son cry for a while before attending to his needs so that he does not get spoiled. According to Erikson’s theory, if an infant thinks that his needs may or may not be met, s/he will likely develop which trait?
Erikson’s Human Development Stages • According to Erikson’s life-span development theory, if a toddler is punished harshly or restrained severely, he or she will likely develop which trait?
Erikson’s Human Development Stages • During which of Erikson’s stages is a person expected to focus his or her efforts on transmitting something positive to the next generation?
Social Contexts andSocioemotional Development Social Contexts of Development Families Peers Schools
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles • Neglectful • Parents are permissive and uninvolved. Children have poor self-control and low achievement motivation. • Authoritarian • Parents place firm limits and controls on children. Children tend to be socially incompetent with poor communication skills. • Indulgent • Parents are highly involved but set few restrictions. Children have poor self-control. • Authoritative • Parents are nurturing and supportive. Children are self-reliant, get along with peers, and have high • self-esteem.
Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Minority students - Families tend to be larger; depend more on the extended family for support - Single parents are more common - Less educated; lower income Low-income parents - Tend to value external characteristics such as obedience and neatness - See education as the teachers’ job
Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families • Middle-class families • - Often place high value on internal characteristics such as self-control and delayed gratification • - See education as a mutual responsibility
Include families as participants in school decisions Provide assistance to families Communicate effectively with families about school programs and their child’s progress Encourage parents to be volunteers Involve families with their children in learning activities at home Coordinate community collaboration School-Family Linkages
School-Family Linkages • Research shows that family involvement greatly influences student attitudes, attendance, and academic achievement. • What are some different ways in which you could involve families in your classroom? • What are some of the challenges to involving families and how can you overcome these?
Peers • Name nomination List the names of three students you like: 1.____________________________ 2.____________________________ 3.____________________________ List the names of three students you dislike: 1.____________________________ 2.____________________________ 3.____________________________
Peers • Likert scale How much do you like each classmate below? Aimee Dislike 1 2 3 4 5 Like Brent Dislike 1 2 3 4 5 Like Cathy Dislike 1 2 3 4 5 Like Evan Dislike 1 2 3 4 5 Like … Zoe Dislike 1 2 3 4 5 Like
Peer Statuses Popular Listen carefully, act like themselves, show enthusiasm, are happy Rejected Seldom “best friend,” often disliked Neglected Infrequently “best friend,” are not disliked
Peer Statuses Average Receive both positive and negative peer nominations Controversial Frequently “best friend,” often disliked
Case Study: The School Play The eighth-grade class at Jefferson Middle School is an especially troublesome one. Students are sharply divided into two groups, the “popular” ones and the “unpopular” ones. The popular students have little time or tolerance for their low-status peers, and a few of them frequently pick on a small, friendless boy named Peter.
Case Study: The School Play When things get so bad that the faculty considers canceling the annual eighth-grade musical, music teacher Mr. Hughes suggests that “the show must go on” but perhaps not in the usual way. Rather than holding tryouts and selecting only a handful of students as cast members, he proposes that the school have the entire eighth-grade class participate in some way, either in the cast or in scenery construction, costume design, or lighting. “Perhaps a group project will pull the class together,” he explains. Many of the other teachers are skeptical, but everyone agrees to support Mr. Hughes’s project.
Case Study: The School Play Throughout March and April, all 92 members of the eighth-grade class and many of the teachers work on a production of the musical You’re a Good Man, Charlie Brown. The sheer ambitiousness of the project and the fact that the class’s efforts will be on public display on opening night instill a cohesiveness and class “spirit” that the faculty hasn’t seen before. Peter, playing Snoopy, surprises everyone with his talent, and on opening night his classmates give him rave reviews: “Did you see Peter? He was amazing.” “I had no idea he was so good.” “He was totally cool.”
Case Study: The School Play • Middle school students often divide themselves into different social groups, with some groups having higher social status than others. Why might social groups be so important for young adolescents? Are they beneficial or harmful? • What benefits might the all-class school play have? Why does it pull the class together?
Friendships Reflect: What is a friend? Benefits of Friendships • Companionship • Physical support • Ego support • Intimacy/affection
Friendships Online • Instant messenger • Email • Blogging • Entries on websites such as Face Book
Positive Consequences of Friendships • Provide social support • Ease difficult school transitions • Enhance later self-esteem • Prepare individuals for romantic relationships later in life • Help students learn social problem solving skills
Social Contexts andSocioemotional Development Socioemotional Development The Self Moral Development
Social Contexts andSocioemotional Development Social Cognition Self- Understanding Other- Understanding Social Knowledge Self-Control Role and Perspective Taking
Self-concept is a cognitive appraisal of our social, physical, and academic competence (measures of such things are our skill in various subject areas, our assessment of our appearance, and the skill we have in peer relationships). Physical Academic Social Cognitive Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Self-esteem is the affective or emotional reaction to one’s self-concept (reflects a person’s overall confidence and satisfaction).
Theories on Self-Esteem • William James • Competencies/value • James Cooley • “Looking Glass Self”
Improving Children’s Self-Esteem Encourage and facilitate • Competence in areas students find important • Improvement of academic skills through the use of professional tutors, parent volunteers, and peer tutors • Emotional support and social approval by parents, friends, and peers • Social skills that promote positive peer relationships • Coping skills to face the day-to-day problems as they appear
Pattern of Moral Growth Initial Stages Early Childhood Stage Middle Childhood Stage Adolescent Stage
Moral Dilemma • A police officer works in a state that has a law requiring mandatory life in prison for anyone who commits a third felony. The police officer apprehends a 44-year-old father who hit another father in the face at his son’s youth soccer game. The man’s previous two felonies had been committed twenty years before. If the police officer arrests the man, he will be put in prison for life. What should she do?
Heteronomous moralityage 4–7 Autonomous moralityage 7–10 • Rules are unchangeable properties of the world Immanent justiceObjective responsibility • Laws are created by people, and intention and consequences should be considered Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development
Piaget’s Theory of Moral DevelopmentTheory into Practice Alex accidentally trips and falls while carrying the classroom globe. It breaks when he falls on top of it. He is certain that he will be punished for this, in spite of the fact that he was doing nothing wrong when the accident occurred. Q:Based on the information above, at which of Piaget’s stages of moral development is Alex? Explain.