How did the Edo Era of Great Peace Begin? • In the 16th century, Japan was divided into about 250 smaller regions • TheEmperor was the ruler of Japan. • The capital (Government) located in Kyoto • During the Edo period, government moved to Edo • Edo (not the restaurant) = Tokyo
Constantly at war with each other for more land and power • The Daimyo was the commander of each region • The Shogun held the real power and authority, he was the leader of the military government • Three Shogun are given credit for unifying Japan. • Oda Nobunaga • ToyotomiHideyoshi • Tokugawa Ieyasu
Oda Nobunaga (1534-1585) • Reduced the influence of Buddhist control over Japanese politics • Built a series of castles to defend his lands • Introduced new administrative practices to pave the way towards a unified Japan
ToyotomiHideyoshi(1536-1598) • Continued centralizing government • Charged landowner kokuinstead of money for tax. The wealthier paid more. • Created a formal class structure that included samurai, farmers, artisans, merchants
People had to chose between farming or warrior, not both • Tried expanding his land by attacking both Korea and China. He lost. • Supported painters and new types of drama
Tokugawa Ieyasu(1542-1616) • Established his government base in Edo • Finalized the unification of Japan • Isolationist – believed that Japan could advance on its own
Why Did Japan Isolate Itself from Much of the World Foreign Influences • Japan was trading with European merchants. (Portugal, Spain, England, Netherlands) • Ieyasu did not want the Japanese to be exposed by western ideas. • Saw the Europeans setting up colonies • Wanted ensure the safety and sovereignty of the Japanese
The Spread of Christianity • Most European ships had Catholic missionaries on them • St. Francis Xavier converted 150,000 • Hideyoshi ordered the missionaries to leave, and later 26 Franciscans were executed • After Isyasu’s death the Bakufu worried about the people following otherspiritual views. • Introduced a bunch of Edicts
The National Seclusion Policy developed over six years from 1633 to 1639. It set out controls on the interaction between Japanese and foreigners. The National Seclusion Policy: Closed Country Edict of 1635 • Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to travel to foreign countries • No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. Anyone who attempts to do so must be executed. • No single trading city shall be permitted to purchase all the merchandise brought by foreign ships. • If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death. • Portuguese ships are banned from Japanese ports. Any ship disobeying this order will be destroyed and its crew and passengers executed. • If any southern barbarians (Westerners) teach Christianity or commit crimes, they may be put into prison.
How Did the Political System During the Edo Period Reflect their Worldview? • Hierarchical Political System • Every domain (province) was controlled by a Daimyo • He controlled his lands how he wanted, but had to swear allegiance to the Shogun • Each of the Daimyo ruled over the local government, or Han • Even the shogun was in control of one
Political Structure Samurai Order Ruler of Japan Ruled by HatamotoGokenin (advisors serving shogun) Ruled by Retainers (serving han)
How did the Bakufu Control the Daimyo? • The daimyo were divided into three classes: • those most trusted and loyal • nobles of the Tokugawa family • those who had little standing because they may have opposed the shogun before he gained power. The daimyo could never move out of their class. The Bakufu wanted to ensure that no daimyo could gain enough power and wealth to overtake the shogun or gain power over the members of the Bakufu.
Every Diamyo must adhere to these rules: • No unnecessary contact between Daimyos • Report any suspicious activities, don’t let traitors to the Shogun into their domain • There can only be one castle per domain • Supply detailed maps of landholding to Bakufu • Daimyo must support public building project
Daimyo spent every second year in Edo • All commoners must register at Buddhist temples • Marriages of daimyo must get permission from Bakufu • Travel and shipbuilding are restricted
The Bakufu controlled the Diamyo: • Had the power to relocate them • Had the power to abolish them • Created laws that did not allow for the daimyo to create alliances with each other • Created laws that made it impossible to gain enough money to become a threat
Hierarchical Social Class System • Edo Japan’s social structure during isolation was a hierarchical system. (like the feudal system – could not move out of the class they were born into) • 6 Levels of the class system: • Shogun • Samurai • Farmers • Artisans • Merchants • Outcasts (Eta) • Non-Humans (Hinin)
Jigsaw Activity: Social Structure • Each group will be assigned a social class /level • Group must make notes and present notes to class. • Info to cover: • What was their job • What was there place in the social system • How did things change during isolation? • In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same. Refer to p. 141 - 145
Social Structure: Samurai • What was their job • What was there place in the social system • How did things change during isolation? • In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Farmers • What was their job • What was there place in the social system • How did things change during isolation? • In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Artisans • What was their job • What was there place in the social system • How did things change during isolation? • In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Merchants • What was their job • What was there place in the social system • How did things change during isolation? • In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Outcasts • What was their job • What was there place in the social system • How did things change during isolation? • In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Non-humans • What was their job • What was there place in the social system • How did things change during isolation? • In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
How did Communities Change During Isolation? • The shogun created, and maintained five major roadways for thediamyo’sannual pilgrimages to Edo • The regularmovement of people had an effect on the economies of the domains of the nation • Economies of the rural and urban areas becameintertwined. • As the diamyo and their entourages traveled, the need for services on the route grew • Accommodations • Food • Etc.
With all the visitors going to Edo, artisans and merchants started to settle in areas on the main roadways. • This provided the travelers with goods and services • Cities could not be self-sufficient, so rural and urban areas became intertwined. • Eventually, castletownsgrewbecause of the influx of artisans and merchants • Edo, Kyoto, Osaka grew to over 1,000,000 • The change to an urban society helped the later transitions Japanese society wouldundergo in the Meiji period.
Japan’s Three Metropolises Edo • Present day Tokyo and was the largest city and the center of government • Ieyasu chose this site for the easy to defend port and waterways. • Sometimes they had 250 daimyo and their families in the city • To sustain the the city’s growth and economy merchant were encouraged to develop large businesses. • By the 18th century, the city grew to over 1 000 000 people, makingit one of the largestcities in the world
Kyoto • Was the capital before Edo • The city waschosenbecauseithadeasy river access to the sea. • City was also surrounded by mountains which provided good defense • Known for beautiful luxuries like silk brocades, fine lacquer, and metal work • Center of publishing and known for its woodblock printing
Osaka • Around a protected harbour • It had hundreds of warehouses along the waterfront and good were moved by river access to the inland cities (Kyoto) • Famous castle (Buddhist temple) and the 150 bridges • Known as the “Kitchen of Japan” • Good farmland • Surplus rice was sent to sell
How Did The Popular Culture Of Japan Change During Isolation? • Just as the arts flourished in the city-states of the Renaissance, the popular culture of Japanbegan to change • Citiesgrew and the merchant class became more wealthy • The daimyo became patrons of the arts and supportedartists, sculptors, painters etc.
Kabuki Theatre • Featuredlively action and was a mirror of Japanese life • Depicted moral dilemmas • Great kabuki actorsweresopopular, theyweretreatedlike the movie stars of today Banraku Theater • Banrakuwas a name for a puppettheaterwhichwas for adults Geishas • Womentrained in dancing, singing and theywereexpected to demonstrate all the correct forms of etiquette Woodlock Images • Wereprints of original paintingswhichoftendepictedscenes of nature and the lives of commoners in thierdailyactivities Books and Literature • By the mid-17th century, printing housesapeared in Osaka • BashoMatsuodeveloped a new poeticformcalledHaiku
How DidForeign Influence Change Japan Despote Policies Of Isolation? • Depsiteit’spolicies, Japanwas not totallyisolated • The Chinese and the Koreanswerepermittedlimitedaccess to the country to meetwithJapanese traders ad officials • Chinese influence on Japaneselearningincreasedduring isolation as theirgoods and ideaswereactuallyallowedintoJapan • The Dutcheventuallyhad an impact on Japan in the area of medicine • In the 1720’s the shogun himselfbecameinterested in Western books and ideas and as a resultrelaxed restrictions on importing books
Chapter 5 What Factors Influenced Change in Meiji Japan?
Russian Influence • They started trading along the Pacific Coast and established the Russian-American Company. • The czar gave the company permission to trade with the Ainu. • Russia stopped trading when they became involved with wars in Europe. • Japanese realized that the Bakufu were too concerned with internal affairs and should prepare for trouble that might come from the outside world. Japan’s Response • Captured a commander and pushed Russians off the northern Islands
European Influence • Dutch East India Company had all their ships fly Dutch flags and hide any bibles and weapons. • Japanese high level official believed they should start learning about the west and had books brought in. • They learned about history, the sciences and institutions. • Thought Europe was a superpower because they all dressed the same unlike Asian countries. Japan’s Response • Closed the doors tighter, and asked for documentation from ships that would dock.
Chinese Influence • China was forced to sign a treaty that gave control of their ports to Britain. Japan’s Response • Since they saw China as a powerful nation, they realized the strength of the British Navy. • Abandoned some edicts that might cause Western countries, like Britain, want to invade Japan if they don’t start negotiating.
United States Influence • Commodore Matthew Perry negotiated; • Get supplies and coal from Japan • To protect sailors and American ships that might need help • To enter into an official trade agreement • Townsend Harris negotiated • Opened five ports for the Americans • Allowed Americans to live in Edo and Osaka • Supplied Japan with ships, arms, and technicians
United States Influence Con’t Japan’s Response • Intellectuals in the larger domains found the treaties favorable • Others felt that they were unequal treaties • Japan was pressured to sign treaties with Russia, Britain, France and the Netherlands. (also considered unequal) • Japan leaders felt they must compete with the West to meet foreign challenges and protect Japan’s Sovereignty
Who/What was… The Ainu: Dutch East India Company Commodore Perry
How did Japan respond to the crisis? • Only a matter of time before Japan was forced to trade with Western nations • Japan would not be able to remain isolated • Japan did not want to be colonized or over thrown by another country • Japan needed Western technologies to remain powerful and independent Different Points of View: caused a lot of internal conflict One group believed:
Another group believed: • Japan should remain isolated and declare war on Western countries • All foreigners should be killed • “barbarians” would expose the common Japanese (peasants, merchants, artisans) to a different way of life, thus, undermining their social structure/class system
Civil Unrest Cause • Bad weather caused poor crops • Japanese began questioning taxes they were forced to pay • Japanese blamed the government for the unrest because they could not overcome their difficulties • Citizens were asking questions about all the changes government was making • Samurai began to support the emperor/stronger loyalty to him • Samurai were upset with the Harris Treaty Effect • Farmers and peasants were starving • Support for the Bakafu weakened • Support for the Bakafu weakened • Support for the Bakafu weakened • Support for the Bakafu weakened • Support for the Bakafu weakened
Leaders of the above domains: • Samurai were especially strong in Choshu, Satsuma,Tosa, and Saga – these domains never really supported the shogun. • secretly traveled to England • did not actually fear the presence of the foreigners • used the issue of foreign influence to create dislike for the Bakufu
Critiques of the shogun: • wanted to create a new government headed by the emperor • increased military armaments • purchased weapons and ships from the West • women broke tradition and began fighting against shogun troops
In 1867… • Samurai from Tosa convinced the shogun to resign and take a leading role in the new government • military forces from Satsuma and Choshu intervened • Meiji was the new emperor • Tokugawa shogun surrendered their ancestral lands to the Meiji • Shogun responded with military attack • Military forces were defeated in 1869 • Emperor moved to Edo and renamed the capital Tokyo
The Modernization of Japan • Meiji period: 1868 to 1912 • Led the restoration of imperial rule