LESSON 3.2The Brain OBJECTIVES Identify the different technologies used to study the brain. Identify the three major brain regions.
Monday, September 9th • You get your tests back!!!! • Looking at the 3 major parts of the brain • Examples…
Pinkie and the Brain • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snO68aJTOpM&list=PL02DaVPqFP-P5SNpVHyjLrdrxn7cTxL0M
Weighs approximately 3 pounds Mostly water - 78% Fat - 10% Protein - 8% Soft enough to cut with a butter knife Grapefruit-sized organ Outside of the brain Convolutions or folds (like a folded up piece of paper) Wrinkles are part of the cerebral cortex Folds allow maximum surface area Facts about the Brain
The Three Major Brain Regions • The hindbrain is the part of the brain found at the rear base of the skull that controls the most basic biological needs for life.
Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum • Medulla: top of spinal cord • Controls breathing, heart rate, swallowing and digestion, upright posture • Pons: above the medulla • Sleep and arousal • Cerebellum • Regulation and coordination of movement • learning
Damage • DAMAGE TO THE CEREBELLUM • Results in deficits in balance, coordination, skilled movement. • DAMAGE TO THE BRAIN STEM • Results in the disruption of vital involuntary actions such as heart rate, breathing death
Cerebellar Gait • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eBvzFkcvScg
Cerebellar Ataxia • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ji-nPrbigxA
Boy without a Cerebellum • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCisaP09yFU
Midbrain • The midbrain is the part of the brain above the hindbrain that plays a role in attention, stimulation, and consciousness.
Midbrain • Combines sensory information and sends it to other brain regions
Reticular formation: • Reticular formation: • Regulation and maintenance of sleep and consciousness • Startled by loud noise- heightened arousal • Sleep through familiar sounds • Damaged: may have permanent coma
Forebrain • The forebrain is the part of the brain above the midbrain that controls emotional reactions, thought processes, movement, sensory information and body temperature.
Limbic System • Limbic System: inter-related doughnut shaped neural structures. • Two main structures: • Amygdala: controls fear and aggression • Hippocampus: memory formation • Removed for H.M.
50 First Dates… • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErjP5xMTc8I
Patient HM:Henry Molaison • Born 1926 • Died 2008 • Henry Gustav Molaison, known widely as H.M., was an American memory disorder patient whose hippocampi, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdalae were surgically removed in an attempt to cure his epilepsy • Brain donated to science
Patient HM • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKP6tBhM2T4
Retrograde Amnesia- Hippocampus • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRzjur-rBvY
The Vow- Hippocampus • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGjUAHS8pHY
Thalamus • Thalamus: the brain’s sensory relay station. • Sorts and sends messages from the eyes, ears, tongue, and skin to other parts of the brain.
Hypothalamus Hypothalamus: located under the thalamus • Provide homeostasis, constant internal body state • Regulates eating, drinking, and sexual behavior. • Controls the release of hormones from pituitary gland.
Are you hungry? • If yes, your blood sugar and body temperature are probably low. • The hypothalamus uses these cues, along with others, to tell us we’re hungry. • AS we eat our blood sugar level and temperature level rise, and our hypothalamus tells us that we are full. • This explains why we sometimes sweat when we eat. It also explains why we eat less when we’re warm.
Four Lobes of the Brain • Frontal • Parietal • Occipital • Temporal
Lobes of the Brain - Frontal • Higher mental processes: • Decision making • Emotional control • Planning • Social skills • Abstract thinking • Moods- positive and negative • Where: The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull; they are the largest
Today: September 12th • Psych effects of September 11th • Frontal Lobe lobotomies • Finishing the lobes • Brain labeling activity
Damage to Frontal Lobe • Changes in awareness • Lack of understanding of or concern for past or future events • Decreased range of emotions • Lack of goal-directed behavior • Inappropriate behaviors or reactions, especially to social situations
Possible Scenario Someone with frontal lobe damage walks into the bedroom to make the bed, becomes distracted by the wallpaper, which he decides to be changed and rips it down! My uncle….
The Lobotomist • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0aNILW6ILk
Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe • Where: The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep in front of the occipital lobes, behind the frontal lobe. • Higher Mental Processes: • Spatial awareness and perception • Touch sensation • Perception
Damage to Parietal Lobe • astereognosis (objects can not be recognized by touching them).
Hemi spatial neglect • If an entire hemisphere of the parietal is damaged, the result is • hemi spatial neglect: where an individual is oblivious to one half of their visual field.
Prosopagnosia • Damage to the back of the parietal on both sides may result in prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize faces. • You can still recognize objects, and features of faces, but you can not put the features together to recognize a face.
Occipital Lobe • How do you paint or create art? • Do you visualize the art before you begin? • Does your mental image change as the process progresses? • It is the occipital lobe that helps us visualize something even before it exists!
Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe Where: The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located behind the parietal lobe. • Primary function: • Processing of shapes, colors and motion • integration • interpretation of VISION and visual stimuli. • Damage: • Can cause blindness even if the eyes are healthy.
Temporal Lobes • Where: Located on the sides of the brain, on the underneath of ‘everything else’, near the temples. • Primary Function: • Information Retrieval (Memory and Memory Formation) • Hearing and language • Damage: • - To the left, can have trouble with differentiating what words and sentences mean.