Alternation of generation – the process of alternating between asexual and sexual reproduction • Seedless plants begin by releasing spores that develop into new plants without fertilization. The new adult plant develops male and female structure that join and fertilize to create a new adult plant.
Pollination – the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil • Pollen- a yellow powder that contains the sperm cells • Nectar – sweet liquid produced by flowers to attract pollinators • Self-pollination – a perfect flower with male & female parts pollinates itself • Cross-pollination- pollen from one plant pollinates the flower on another plant
Seeds • Seed has 3 parts • Embryo - the fertilized egg cell developing into a new offspring • Cotyledon-surrounds the embryo and is its food supply • Seed coat – tough outer covering that protects the seed
Germination – the process of the seed developing into a new plant • Monocot- seed with a single cotyledon, parallel vein pattern on leaves, flower petals in groups of three • Dicot – seed with two cotyledons, leaves have a branched vein pattern, flower petals in groups of 4 or 5
Conifers • Conifer – a seed plant with no flowers • Evergreens, pines and firs • Single tree produces male and female cones • Male pollen cells stick to female cones and developing egg remains there as it develops into a seed