WHAT DAY IS IT TODAY? WHY IS THIS DAY IMPORTANT?
THE LAST CLASS THE END OF GEJ1 Almost brings tears to my eyes…
TODAY’S CLASS • CRASH COURSE ON NPs • GENDER • NUMBER • REFERENCE • OVERVIEW OF THE FINAL EXAM • TIPS FOR THE FINAL EXAM • GIFT: • WORKBOOK FOR THE NEXT SEMESTER • YOUR FEEDBACK • GOODLUCKS AND GOODBYES
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE CRASH COURSE ON NPs? • STRUCTURE OF NPs • FUNCTIONS OF NPs • REFERENCE (general info) • NUMBER (general info) • GENDER (general info) ONLY THINGS THAT ARE RELEVANT FOR THE FINAL EXAM.
STRUCTURE OF NPs WHAT ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF NPs?
HOWEVER, NP STRUCTURE IS NOT ACCURATELY REPRESENTED IN YOUR WORKBOOK
ADDITIONAL STRUCTURES OF NPs • Sometimes, an NP can have SOME THINGS EVEN IN FRONT OF THE DETERMINER e.g. • Even both her first young students of assertive psychology now call her a fake. • Things in front of the determiner are called RESTRICTERS: • Especially, even, just, etc. • Sometimes, an NP can have some things BETWEEN THE ADJECTIVE AND THE HEAD NOUN e.g. • This new kitchencabinet is expensive. • IT’S ANOTHER NOUN! • Theoretically there is no limit on the number of PREMODIFYING NOUNS. • E.g. failoverredundancyserver cluster Or, even worse: • Fulfillment line status rule set assignments
FUNCTIONS OF NPs WHAT DO NPs DO IN A SENTENCE?
Last night, around midnight, the underground artists spray-painted the gallery entrance door the color that they thought would look fab in the morning.
FUNCTIONS OF NPs • INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS (SENTENCE ELEMENTS): • SUBJECT (My dog is stupid.) • OBJECT – both INDIRECT and DIRECT (John bought a stupid dog. I gave my friend a stupid dog.) • COMPLEMENT – both SUBJECT and OBJECT (Wolfy is a stupid dog. I consider Wolfya stupid dog.) • ADVERBIAL (I took my stupid dog for a walk yesterday. I bought it last year.) • DEPENDENTFUNCTIONS (PARTS OF OTHER PHRASES): • COMPLEMENT OF THE PREPOSITION: In a bank, over the river, inside the complex mechanism of a nuclear reactor
REFERENCE WHAT IS REFERENCE?
Nouns and Noun Phrases Defining Reference: Reference denotes the phenomenon by which an NP in a certain utterance is associated with some entity in the real or conceptual world. (Trask 1993, A Dictionary of grammatical terms in Linguistics. London; p. 232) Reference gives information about the relationship which holds between an expression and what that expression stands for on particular occasions of its utterance. (Lyons, Semantics, Vol. I, p. 170) Reference is an utterance-dependent notion!!! IN ENGLISH REFERENCE IS EXPRESSED THROUGH DETERMINERS (e.g. ARTICLES). TO SUM UP (as it is summed up in your Workbook): REFERENCE is a category which only applies to NOUN PHRASES (it DOES NOT apply to NOUNS)
REFERENCE – in this course UNIQUE REFERENCE is a property of PROPER NOUNS.
TYPES OF REFERENCE SOME ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES
UNIQUE REFERENCE • Unique reference is restricted to PROPER NOUNS and can be realized with: • THE DEFINITE ARTICLE (e.g. the Arctic) • THE ZERO ARTICLE (e.g. John Smith) • BTW, proper nouns are names of specific people (Shakespeare), places(Milwaukee), countries(Austria), months(January), days(Thursday), holidays(Christmas), magazines (Vogue) and so forth. • Proper nouns lack article contrast (Paris vs. *The Paris, or The Hague vs. *A Hague)
UNIQUE REFERENCE WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE • The Browns have just moved in. • The Netherlands is a nice country. • West Devon Beef was offered £1.60 a kilo by meat firms in Somerset and the Midlands. • PLURAL NAMES (IN GENERAL)
UNIQUE REFERENCE WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE • The Hebrides, the Shetlands, the Canaries • The Himalayas, the Alps, the Rockies, the Pyrenees • PLURAL GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES (usually GROUPS OF ISLANDS and MOUNTAIN RANGES) • EXCEPTIONS: Kensington Gardens, Burnham Beeches
UNIQUE REFERENCE WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE • The Avon, the Danube, the Euphrates, etc. • The Pacific (Ocean), the Baltic, the Kattegatt, etc. • The Panama Canal, the Erie Canal, etc. • SINGULAR GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES OF RIVERS, SEAS, OCEANS and CANALS
UNIQUE REFERENCE WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE • The Grand, the Waldorf Asotoria, the Savoy, etc. • NAMES OF HOTELS and RESTAURANTS • The Globe, the Criterion, the Athenaeum, etc. • NAMES OF THEATRES, CINEMAS, CLUBS, etc. • The Tate, the Louvre, the Ermitage, etc. • NAMES OF MUSEUMS, LIBERARIES, etc.
UNIQUE REFERENCE WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE • The Economist, The New York Times, The Observer, The Providence Journal, etc. • NAMES OF NEWSPAPERS • NOTE: After genitives and possessives the article is dropped: today’s New York Times • NOTE: Magazines and periodicals normally have the zero article – Life, Time, Popular Mechanics, Nature, Language, etc.
UNIQUE REFERENCE WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE • The University of Novi Sad, the City of New York, the Island of Cyprus, etc. • PROPER NOUNS IN POSMODIFICATION WITH A GENERIC TERM AS THE HEAD NOUN • NOTE: When the proper noun is the head noun, the zero article is used: Novi Sad University, New York City, etc.
UNIQUE REFERENCE WITH THE ZERO ARTICLE • Generally speaking, the following list exemplifies the main classes of proper nouns that take the zero article: • PERSONAL NAMES (with or without titles) • TEMPORAL NAMES • Festivals • Months and days of the week • GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES • Continents • Countries, counties, states, etc. • Cities, towns, etc. • Lakes, and • Mountains • NAME + COMMON NOUN
UNIQUE REFERENCE – ZERO ARTICLE - PERSONAL NAMES • Dr Brown, President Kennedy, Mr and Mrs Smith, professor and Mrs Walker, Priver Ryan, Lord Nelson, Lady Churchill, Cardinal Spellman, General MacArthur, Captain O’Connor, Inspector Harris, Judge Dredd, etc. • EXCEPTIONS: the Emperor Napoleon (but: Emperor Haile Selassie), the Duke of Wellington, the Lord (= God), (the) Czar Alexander, (the) Rev John Smith • The article may also precede other titles, including LORD and LADY, but only in FORMAL USE. • Family relations with unique reference behave like proper nouns: Father (Daddy, Dad) / Mother (Mummy, Mum) / Uncle is here. • COMPARE: The father was the tallest in the family. Vs. Father, where’s my new book?
UNIQUE REFERENCE – ZERO ARTICLE - TEMPORAL NAMES • Christmas (Day), Independence Day, Easter (Sunday), Good Friday, Passover, etc. • NAMES OF FESTIVALS • January, February, Monday, Thursday, etc. • NAMES OF THE MONTHS AND THE DAYS OF THE WEEK • NOTE: The days of the week have plurals (I hate Mondays.) along with nextand last + a noun constructions: We’ll leave on Sunday. He left on the next Sunday. • E.g. He left on a Sunday. (without a reference to a particular Sunday)
UNIQUE REFERENCE – ZERO ARTICLE – GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES • (North) America, (Central) Asia, (Medieval) Europe, (East) Africa, etc. • NAMES OF CONTINENTS (NORMALLY NO ARTICLE EVEN WITH PREMODIFYING ADJECTIVES) • EXCEPTIONS: Antarctica BUT the Antarctic, also the Arctic
UNIQUE REFERENCE – ZERO ARTICLE – GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES • (Elizabethan) England, (modern) Brazil, (industrial) Staffordshire, (northern) Scotland, etc. • NAMES OF COUNTRIES, COUNTIES, STATES, ETC. (NORMALLY NO ARTICLE EVEN WITH PREMODIFYING ADJECTIVES) • EXCEPTIONS: Argentina BUT the Argentine, the Ruhr, the Saar, the Sahara, (the) Ukraine, the Crimea, (the) Lebanon, (the) Congo, the Midwest • The Everglades – AND OTHER PLURAL NAMES
UNIQUE REFERENCE – ZERO ARTICLE – GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES • (downtown) Boston, (ancient) Rome, (central) Brussels, (suburban) London, etc. • NAMES OF CITIES AND TOWNS (NORMALLY NO ARTICLE EVEN WITH PREMODIFYING WORDS) • EXCEPTIONS: The Hague, the Bronx, the City, the West End, the East End
UNIQUE REFERENCE – ZERO ARTICLE – GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES • Lake Michigan, Silver Lake, (Lake) Ladoga, etc. • NAMES OF LAKES • Mount Everest, Mount Vernon, Mont Blanc, Vesuvius, Ben Nevis, etc. • NAMES OF MOUNTAINS • EXCEPTION: the Mount of Olives
UNIQUE REFERENCE – ZERO ARTICLE – NAME + COMMON NOUN • Hampstead Heath, Oxford Street, Madison Avenue, Park Lane, Portland Place, Brendon Hill, Piccadilly Circus, Leicester Square, Westminster Bridge, Windsor Castle, Westminster Abbey, Paddington Station, Epping Forest, Scotland Yard, Hampton Court, etc. • NAME + COMMON NOUN (DENOTING BULIDINGS, STREETS, BRIDGES, ETC.) • EXCEPTIONS: the Albert Hall, the Mansion House, the Haymarket, the Strand, the Mall, the Merrit Parkway, the Pennsylvania Turnpike. • THINK: What’s the difference between the Oxford Road and the Oxford road?
HOWEVER, THESE ARE NOT NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES, SO WE WILL SIMPLY MOVE ON…
REFERENCE • Reference as a grammatical relationship is realized through DETERMINERS. • DETERMINERS are a closed-system set of function words which act as premodifiers in the NP. • Based on their position in the NP in relation to each other they are divided into: • PREDETERMINERS • CENTRAL DETERMINERS • POSTDETERMINERS PREDETERMINERS AND CENTRAL DETERMINER ARE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE, BUT TWO POSTDITERMINERS CAN CO-OCCUR. my best friendBUT *the my best friend – BECAUSE both MY and THE are CENTRAL DETERMINERS all my best friends is OK, - BECAUSE ALL is a PREDETERMINER, and MY is CENTRAL DETERMINER his next two novelsis OK - BECAUSE NEXT and TWO are POSTDETERMINERS, and POSTDETERMINERS can co-occur
WORKBOOK PAGE 82
THE MOST IMPORTANT EXERCISES FOR THE FINAL EXAM TASKS 1 and 2