Information Technology in Plant Protection Presentation
GIS tools for Plant Protection • Prepared by: • Dr. János Busznyák
Digital Mapping Tools for Plant Protection • Methods of Obtaining Spatial Data • Manual • Geodesy • With the help of Global Positioning • Photogrammetry • Remote Sensing • Manual Map Digitalisation • Scanning Maps • From Digital Files
Digital Map • Not only the digital form of the contents of a map ready to be used with a computer. • No need for segmentation, the elements are of real size, has accurate fitting, has topology, often uses layers and objects. • Primary Data Obtaining Methods • Measurements (GPS) • Existing Reports Mostly vector data are obtained from primary data obtaining methods. • From Secondary Sources • By digitalization, adding automatic or manual vectorization. In the case of georeferencing and vectorization in secondary methods, the result is also a vector map. If a secondary data collection (scanning) is not followed by vectorization, the result is a digital raster map.
Raster-Vector Transformation • Aim • New level of GPS analysis (vector) • New publication possibilities • Lower storage and transfer capacity needs • Preparatory steps • Digitalization of map sheets • Georeferencing, eliminating distortions, projection convertion (lots of work) • Pre-processing • Vectorization • Of areas • Of line-like objects • Of objects • Post-processing
Vectorization II. • Vectorization • Manual • Semi-automatic • Automatic
Application of the Automatic Method • Automatic vectorization of a soil map • Single bit • Low data density • Automatic vectorization of a topographic map • 8-bit • High datadensity Black: convertto line Blue: segmentedpixels
Data Input from Text File • Coordinates of the shape file vertex points • site,lat,long,name,HOTLINK • 1,38.889,-77.035,Washington Monument,http://www.nps.gov/wamo • 2,38.889,-77.050,Lincoln Memorial,c:/ESRI/AEJEE/DATA/WASHDC/linc.jpg • 3,38.898,-77.036,White House,c:/ESRI/AEJEE/DATA/WASHDC/whse.txt • 4,38.889,-77.009,Capitol,c:/ESRI/AEJEE/DATA/WASHDC/cap.pdf ESRI Arc Explorer JEE tutorial
Hybrid Data Model, Mashup Map • With the help of hybrid systems, raster and vector data can be used together. • Vector, raster and attribute data are stored separately, in the most suitable way for the model. • The operations are carried out by these systems in the model that is most suitable for the operation in question. • The systems apply a wide variety of vector-raster transformations before and after the operations. • The GoogleMaps service is based on a hybrid data model.
Data Quality • Facts that mostly influence data quality: • Origin of data • Geometric accuracy • Accuracy of attribute data • Consistency of attribute data • Topologic consistency • Completeness and validity of data
Georeferencing • Georeferencing is the process of scaling, rotating, translating and deskewing the image to match a particular size and position. The word was originally used to describe the process of referencing a map image to a geographic location. Source:http://wintopo.com/help/html/georef.htm • Usual ways: • World file • Header (GeoTiff, GeoJP2…)
Header • Certain image formats include georeferencing information in the header of the image file: • img, • bsq, • bil, • bip, • EXIF • ITT • GeoTIFF • grid
Word File • Georeferencing information is stored in a separate word file: • The word file contains 6 parameters of an affin transformation that means a connection between the image coordinate system and that of the world coordinate system. • The images are stored as raster data, where each cell of the image is identified by a row and coloumn number. • The name of the word file has to be the same as the image file and be in the same folder.
Georeferencing with the Help of 2Reference Points segítségével
ProjectionSystems, Conversion • Projection, date • Geoid, geoidundulation • Uniform National Projection (UNP - EOV) • Transformation • Base points, base point systems
Classification of Projection • Based on image surface shape • Cylinder projection • Cone projection • Flat projection • Other projection • Based on image surface axle • Polar (normal) • Transversal (equatorial) • Oblique (not normal difference) • Based on the contact of the image and base surface • Tangent • Transect
Important Projection Systems • Systems without projection • Dual projection Hungarian systems • Stereographic projection systems (BUDAPESTI, MAROSVÁSÁRHELYI) • Oblique Mercator Projection • HÉR, HKR, HDR • EOV • Gauss-Krüger • UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) • GEOREF (World Geographic Reference System)
Important Ellipsoids • Reference ellipsoids nearing an area of the Earth surface • The centre of the ellipsoid is that of the Earth • The axis of rotation is that of the Earth’s • Parameters • Major axis (equatorial radius) • Oblateness (connection between equatorial and polar radius) • If the centre of the ellipsoid is moved until it fits to the examined area with the least error, we will get the geodesic date. • Bessel (stereographic) • Kraszovszkij (Gauss-Krüger) • Hayford (UTM) • WGS-84 (GPS), • IUGG-67 (EOV)
Some Interesting Projections • Geographic Projection • WGS 1984 Datum • Ortographic Projection • SPHERE Datum • Eckert IV. Projection • WGS 1984 Datum
Geoidundulation • GPS measurement gives the height above the ellipsoid (h). When calculating height above sea level(H), geoidundulation has to be taken into consideration. • Geoidundulation is the separation between the equipotential surface that represents a mean ocean surface and a reference ellipsoid (h=H+N, where N is the value of geoindundulation of the point). • Geoid: the surface of oceans and seas, if connected by small canals under the land(Listing 1873)
Uniform National Projection • The starting coordinates have been placed 200km to the South and 650 km to the West. Thus, the Y coordinates are lower than 400, and the X coordinates are always higher than 400, which means they are easy to distinguish.
Uniform National Elevation Network(EOMA) • The first elevation of Hungary was carried out based on the Mediterranian base level from 1873-1913. • Height of Nadap main base point: 173,8385 m. • Baltic base level after World War II. • Height of Nadap main base point: 173,1638 m, which is 0,6747 m lower.
Transformation • ETRS89 (OGPSH) points transformed into the Uniform National Projection (EOV) system and back • The points for the transformation are chosen automatically • Local transformation based on the common points of the OGPSH and EOV systems • With 8 common points in Hungary • With refined Geoidundulation data Etrs89-Eov-Hivatalos-Helyi-Térbeli-Transzformáció
Base Points • Database of Altitudinal Base Points • Database of Horizontal Base Points • Database of OGPS Base Points • Országos GPS Hálózat pontjai (Points of the National GPS Network-OGPSH)
Videos and Animations for Chapter 1. • Video • Georeferencig (graphical) • Animation • Georeferencing • Geoidundulation • Shape (create)
Tasks for Chapter 1. I. question Identify the value of geoid-undulation at the Parliament Building, Budapest, Hungary with the help of EHT (or any other) software . • question Digitalize any map sheet with the help of a scanner. Georeferate it with 3 reference points with the help of GEOREGARCVIEW software. The necessary coordinates can be obtained from mapservers (eg. Googlemaps). III. question Digitalize another map sheet overlapping the previous one with the helpof a scanner. Georeferate with 3 reference points with the help of GEOREGARCVIEW software. Open it together with the georeferated file of the previous task with ArcExplorer JEE (or any other) and check its accuracy. The necessary coordinates can be obtained from mapservers (eg. Googlemaps).
GNSS Device System • GlobalPositioning • The coordinates of 3 satellites at a given time are needed. • If time can be measured accurately, then wave spread speed and the time will help calculate how far we are from the satellite. • In the case of 1 satellite, it will give a sphere surface.
GlobalPositioning II. • If there is a connection with 2 satellites, then we are on the sphere of both satellites. The section of the two spheres is a circle. • The section of the sphere of the third satellite and the circle will be two points, one of which can always be excluded (eg. Points far from the earth surface).
Network RTK in Hungary(2010) • GNSSNet • NtripCaster IP address, port: 184.108.40.206:2101
Multi-Base System in Hungary ( 2010) • Geotrade GNSS • Host: www.geotradegnss.hu • Port: 2101
Single-Base System(2010)( 2009 • Georgikon RTK coverage • DGPS forthe whole country of Hungary • http://gnss.georgikon.hu • 220.127.116.11:2101
MobileInternet • CSD (CircuitSwitched Data) • Line connected mobile internet - 9,6 kbit/s - 1G • GPRS (General PacketRadio Service) • Package connected - 115 kbit/s - 2G • EDGE (Enhanced Data Ratesfor GSM Evolution) • GPRS reinforcement- 236 kbit/s-os (112-400) - 2,5G • 3G • 3G mobile network, video call 384 kbit/s - 3G • HSPA (High-SpeedDownlink/UplinkPacket Access) • HSDPA theoretic data transfer speed depending on device and coverage: up to 21 Mbit/s – 3,5G • 4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) • 1Gbit/s - 4G
Videos and Animations for Chapter 2. • Video • Trimble VRS system • Animation • GNSSNet service • Geotrade GNSS • Georgikon GNSS Base
Tasks for Chapter 2. I. question Find the data of the accessible satellites of the Galileo and BEIDOU systems at a given time. II. question Find the terrain control stations of the Navstar GPS system at a given time. III. question Find the worst measurement site on the Earth’s surface concerning ionosphere state at a topical time. Use the ‘space weather forecast’ of Australia (or any other information source). http://www.ips.gov.au/Space_Weather
Terrain GNSS Measurement and Processing • GNSS Measurement • Planning (almanach) • Realization (online correction: procession too) • Data transfer(exchange formats, RINEX - Receiver Independent Exchange Format) • Processing (vectors, transformation, error correction) • Network equalization (OGPSH – National GPS Network)
Aim of GNSS Measurement Planning • Guarantee of integrity • GNSS • Way of correction • Guarantee of nedded accuracy • Accuracy of the Rover device • Way of correction • Satellite constellation • Minimalization of other disturbing facts
Devices for Planning • GNSS satellite data • Almanach • Trimble Planning • Leica SatelliteAvailability • Topcon OccupationPlanning • Receiving correction data • Mobile internet • Gprs coverage • Style, devices, realization
Almanach • Timing • Further in time • Back in time • General • YUMA formátum,USA Coast Guard Navigációs Központ (YUMA format, USA Coast Guard Navigation Center) • A dátum és a GPS-hét kapcsolata a GPS-naptárban (the connection between date and GPS-week in the GPS calendar) • Trimble • Leica • Topcon
Channels of Correction Data • Relative • Real time • Radio • Satellite • Internet • Post-processed • Digital data transfer
Realisation of Measurement • Connection to satellites, controller • Connection to correction service • Setting measurement style • Starting measurement • Recording data
Preparation of Measurement • Obtain, check and converse existing spatial data • Set up a measurement plan • Need for accuracy • Available devices and services • Specialities of the area • Select measurement method • Places of measurement • Conversion to the format of the terrain device • Upload data to the terrain device
End of Measurement • Check measurement data • Inspection • Delete, edit • New recording • Data • Export in needed formats • Turn off terrain device
Processing Data • Load data from terrain device • Formats • Give coordinate system and date • Examine data load mistakes • inspection • Delete, edit • Export to the format of procession
GIS procession and Analysis of Data • Upload data to GIS system • Conversions • Analyses • Interpolations • Model building • Simulation • Statistical analysis • Publication • Online correction • Procession • Offline correction • Time of measurement • Obtain correction data • Correction • Check
Checking Transformation • EEHHTT software • Data input • From file • Via keyboard • Set format of data input • Set data conversion direction • Give coordinates
Typical Terrain Device System • Adatgyűjtő • Navigation accuracy • ArcPad / palmtop with GPS antenna • GPS accuracy • GPS Pathfinderoffice / Trimble GeoXH • Geodesic accuracy • Trimble SurveyController / Trimble 5800 • Data procession • GPS Analyst • GPS Pathfinder Office • Trimble Geomatics Office • ArcGIS