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Foodservice and Lodging Management

Foodservice and Lodging Management. School Foodservice Administrators’ Perceptions of Required and/or Desired Inputs to Implement a HACCP-Based Food Safety Plan: A National Study. Methods. Abstract. Results. Phase One- The Expert Panel

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Foodservice and Lodging Management

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  1. Foodservice and Lodging Management School Foodservice Administrators’ Perceptions of Required and/or Desired Inputs to Implement a HACCP-Based Food Safety Plan: A National Study Methods Abstract Results • Phase One- The Expert Panel • A national panel of 12 public school foodservice directors • - represented each of the seven USDA regions • - provided expert opinions regarding HACCP inputs • and costs Phase Two-The National Survey • An electronic survey developed from results provided by the expert panel • sent to a national sample of 1,850 public school foodservice administrators • equitable representation from the seven USDA regions • Participants were asked to: • Identify equipment purchases by district • Provide organizational inputs such as - food safety and/or HACCP training, - time spent writing SOPs, - obtaining required number of health inspections • Describe perceptions about HACCP implementation and effectiveness locally and nationally Phase Three-Case Study • Site observations and interviews were conducted • in two Florida school districts reported to have successfully implemented HACCP • Organizational Inputs • 446 respondents reported an increase in food safety site-level management training since 2004 • Site-level managers received a median number of 10 food safety training hours during school year 2005-2006 • 40 median hours were reported (n = 399) for developing the district’s HACCP-based SOPs • If cost were no object, 30% (n =254) would have hired a HACCP consultant to write the plan • Over 80% (n =413) reported no increase in cost to obtain the required number of yearly health inspections • Perceptions • Time, paperwork, training, money and staff buy in were reported as the top five challenges • Almost 65% (n = 176) of respondents thought the district’s investment in a food safety plan resulted in safer food served to children The purpose of this three-phase study was to identify public school foodservice administrators’ perceptions of required and/or desired inputs by their districts to comply with the new HACCP-based food safety program mandate. An electronic survey developed using a Delphi –type technique was sent to a stratified, random national sample of public school foodservice administrators (N = 1,850). Respondents (n = 567) provided information regarding large and small equipment purchases, staffing, program development time, training, and perceptions about HACCP/food safety training, HACCP benefits, and challenges. Four site observations of school kitchens were conducted to validate national survey findings. Large districts purchased more large equipment per site than did small- and medium-sized districts. The majority of school districts (88.2%, n = 468) had purchased thermometers either prior to (70.9%) or after (17.3%) the 2004 mandate, with bi-metallic stemmed thermometers being purchased in the highest quantity (Mdn = 12 per district). Shallow pans (2” deep) were identified by almost 60% (n = 129) of respondents as the item purchased in the greatest quantity on a list of other small equipment, with a median of 21 pans per district. Large districts purchased more small equipment per site than small districts. Most respondents (81.4%; n = 413) replied there had not been any additional costs associated with obtaining the required number of annual health inspections. Overall challenges to HACCP implementation as perceived by school foodservice administrators were time (n = 85), paperwork (n = 47), training (n = 38), and money (n = 37). Those in charge of school meal programs should be sure there is training on: proper use of bi-metallic stemmed thermometers, proper calibration of this widely used food temperature measuring device, maintaining food and equipment temperature monitoring equipment, and work simplification techniques to reduce time associated with monitoring and documenting the plan. Recommendations • Districts have incurred costs related to equipment, training, and time although no additional federal funding has been provided • Districts should be sure there is training on proper calibration of bi-metallic stemmed thermometers • Districts should identify work simplification methods and practices to reduce time associated with HACCP at the site level Results • Equipment • Responses were received from 567 school foodservice administrators (30% response rate) • Large districts (enrollment > 10,000) purchased more large and small equipment per site than small districts (enrollment < 2,499) • Most districts (94%) had not purchased a blast chiller; 60% (n =291) would purchase a blast chiller if cost were no object • Over 70% of respondents (n = 332) had purchased thermometers prior to the 2004 federal mandate • Bi-metallic stemmed thermometers were the most widely purchased type of thermometer Cyndie Story, PhD, RD and Catherine Strohbehn, PhD, RD

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