Cognitivism • The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviourism in 1960s as the dominant paradigm. • We recall Chomsky's argument that language could not be acquired purely through conditioning (even though radical behaviourists never argued that), and must be at least partly explained by the existence of internal mental states.
Cognitivism • Cognitivism argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. • The learner is viewed as an information processor. • …or a computer
Cognitivism • Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored. • Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. • Learning is defined as change in a learner’s schemata.
SHOCK – HORROR - DISMAY • There is a great deal of ambiguity in the education literature as to what constitutes Cognitivism, and how it different from Constructivism • What follows is my take on things…
SHOCK – HORROR - DISMAY • There is a great deal of ambiguity in the education literature as to what constitutes Cognitivism, and how it different from Constructivism • What follows is my take on things… Proto-Cognitivism Cognitivism Cognitive Constructivism Constructivism
Gestalt Psychology • Gestalt - "essence or shape of an entity's complete form" • "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is often used when explaining Gestalt theory. • They see objects as perceived within an environment according to all of their elements taken together as a global construct.
Max Wertheimer • Born April 15, 1880 • Died Oct 12, 1943 • Born in Prague, Czech Republic • Psychologist • Father of Gestalt psychology
Inspiration • In 1910 he bought a toy stroboscope • He saw two separate and alternating light patterns • He discovered that if the spacing, on-time, and off-time were just right for these lights, his mind would perceive the dual lights as one single flashing light moving back and forth
Phi phenomenon • a perceptual illusion in which a perception of motion is produced by a succession of still images. • Lead to important questions about how perception and the brain works.
Kurt Koffka • Born March 18, 1886 • Died Nov 22, 1941 • Born in Berlin, Germany • Psychologist • Another of the founders of Gestalt psychology • Learning theorist
Theories on learning • Koffka believed that most of early learning is what he referred to as, "sensorimotor learning," which is a type of learning which occurs after a consequence. For example, a child who touches a hot stove will learn not to touch it again. • Koffka also believed that a lot of learning occurs by imitation, though he argued that it is not important to understand how imitation works, but rather to acknowledge that it is a natural occurrence. • According to Koffka, the highest type of learning is “ideational learning”, which makes use of language.
Wolfgang Köhler • Born in Jan 21, 1887 • Died in June 11, 1967 • Born in Reval (now Tallinn), Estonia • Psychologist and phenomenologist • Another of the founders of Gestalt psychology
In 1913, Köhler went to the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands for six years Köhler observed the manner in which chimpanzees solve problems, such as that of retrieving bananas when positioned out of reach. He found that they stacked wooden crates to use as makeshift ladders, in order to retrieve the food. If the bananas were placed on the ground outside of the cage, they used sticks to lengthen the reach of their arms. Problem solving
Köhler concluded that the chimps had not arrived at these methods through trial-and-error (which American psychologist Edward Thorndike had claimed to be the basis of all animal learning, through his law of effect), but rather that they had experienced an insight (also sometimes known as an “aha experience”), in which, having realized the answer, they then proceeded to carry it out in a way that was, in Köhler’s words, “unwaveringly purposeful.” Problem solving
Gestalt Principles • Emergence • Reification • Multistability • Invariance • Prägnanz
Principle of Emergence • The dog is not recognized by first identifying its parts (feet, ears, nose, tail, etc.), and then inferring the dog from those component parts. • Instead, the dog is perceived as a whole, all at once.
Principle of Reification • the experienced percept contains more explicit spatial information than the sensory stimulus on which it is based.
Principle of Multistability • the tendency of ambiguous perceptual experiences to pop back and forth unstably between two or more alternative interpretations.
Principle of Invariance • the property of perception whereby simple geometrical objects are recognized independent of rotation, translation, and scale; as well as several other variations such as elastic deformations, different lighting, and different component features.
Principle of Prägnanz • we tend to order our experience in a manner that is regular, orderly, symmetric, and simple. • This results in other more basic laws • Law of Closure • Law of Similarity • Law of Proximity • Law of Continuity • Law of Common Fate
Law of Closure • The mind may experience elements it does not perceive through sensation, in order to complete a regular figure (that is, to increase regularity).
Law of Similarity • The mind groups similar elements into collective entities or totalities. This similarity might depend on relationships of form, colour, size, or brightness.
Law of Proximity • Spatial or temporal proximity of elements may induce the mind to perceive a collective or totality.
Law of Symmetry • Symmetrical images are perceived collectively, even in spite of distance.
Law of Continuity • The mind continues visual, auditory, and kinetic patterns.
Law of Common Fate • Elements with the same moving direction are perceived as a collective or unit.
An Investigation of the spatial perception of time multiplexing during the simulation of motion of objects • The project investigated the physiology and psychology of visual perception, and attempted to explain the illusion in those terms. • The psychology investigation centred on Gestalt Psychology and how the principles in Gestalt psychology co-operate to cause the formation of illusory contours. • I designed an LED Array system whose display characteristics could be varied in software to assist in supporting the proposed theory. • In addition the research appears to have found a way of measuring the persistence of vision of illusory contours for very short periods of time.
Kurt Lewin • Born Sept 9, 1890 • Died Feb 12, 1947 • Born in Mogilno, Poland • Psychologist • "founder of social psychology“ • Worked closely with the Gestalt psychologists
provides a framework for looking at the factors (forces) that influence a situation, originally social situations. Lewin believed the "field" to be a Gestalt psychological environment existing in an individual's (or in the collective group) mind at a certain point in time that can be mathematically described in a topological constellation of constructs. Force field Analysis
first coined the term “action research” in about 1944. In his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems” he described action research as “a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action”. Action Research
Instructional Design • Active Learning • Instruction must be planned with a clear vision of what the students will do with the content presented. It is critical that students interact with the instructional content and that activities be developed to promote and support open-ended, self-directed learning. Content should never be delivered for memorization, but instead for use as a tool in planned and sequenced activities. • A Cohesive Approach • Lewin wrote that a piecemeal approach to guiding learners to accept new ideas, attitudes, and behaviors is ineffective. Instead, a cohesive approach must be utilized to support changes in cognition, affect, and behavior. • Impact of the Social Environment • Lewin theorized that before changes in ideas, attitudes, and behavior will occur, modifications in a learner's perception of self and his/her social environment are essential. He also argued that it is easier to create change in a social context than individually.
Instructional Design • Maximise the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. • The process consists of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. • The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed.
Robert Mills Gagné • Born in Aug 21, 1916 • Died in April 28, 2002 • Born in in North Andover, Massachusetts • educational psychologist • best known for his “Conditions of Learning” • involved in applying instructional theory to the design of computer based learning.
The Gagné Assumption • different types of learning exist, and that different instructional conditions are most likely to bring about these different types of learning.
Five Categories of Learning • verbal information • intellectual skills • cognitive strategies • motor skills • attitudes
Eight Types of Learning • Signal Learning - The individual learns to make a general, diffuse response to a signal. Such was the classical conditioned response of Pavlov. • Stimulus-Response Learning - The learner acquires a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. • Chaining - A chain of two or more stimulus-response connections is acquired. • Verbal Association - The learning of chains that are verbal. • Discrimination Learning - The individual learns to make different identifying responses to many different stimuli that may resemble each other in physical appearance. • Concept Learning - The learner acquires a capability of making a common response to a class of stimuli. • Rule Learning - A rule is a chain of two or more concepts. • Problem Solving - A kind of learning that requires the internal events usually called thinking.
Nine Events of Instruction • Gain attention - Curiosity motivates students to learn. • Inform learners of objectives - These objectives should form the basis for assessment. • Stimulate recall of prior learning - Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. • Present the content - This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. • Provide “learning guidance” - use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies. • Elicit performance (practice) - Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention. • Provide feedback - guidance and answers provided at this stage are called formative feedback. • Assess performance - take a final assessment. • Enhance retention and transfer to the job - Effective education will have a "performance" focus.
George Armitage Miller • Born Feb 3, 1920 • Age 90 • Born in Charleston, West Virginia • Psychologist and Cognitive Scientist • founder of WordNet • “Miller’s Magic Number”
Information Processing Theory • TOTE: “Test-Operate-Test-Exit” • an iterative problem solving strategy based on feedback loops • test where the system is currently, • then perform some operation that makes a change, • then retest again, • and to repeat this until the answer is satisfactory, at which point the process is complete and ends (or exits). Test Exit Operate
Information Processing Theory • The following is an example of a simple TOTE: When driving a car and looking for the appropriate turn off. • Test - is this the turnoff? - No • Operate - keep driving • Test - is this the turnoff? - No • Operate - keep driving • Test - is this the turnoff? - Yes • Exit Test Problem Exit Operate