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Class Name, Instructor Name. Date, Semester. Criminology 2011. Chapter 7. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES: EMPHASIS ON SOCIAL STRUCTURE. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES.

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Class Name, Instructor Name

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  1. Class Name,Instructor Name Date, Semester Criminology 2011 Chapter 7 SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES: EMPHASIS ON SOCIAL STRUCTURE

  2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES • Appreciate Emile Durkheim's contributions toward understanding deviance as a normal phenomenon and the influence of structural forces on individual behavior. 7.1 Be familiar with the social disorganization and social ecology approaches, including the work of Park and Burgess, Shaw and McKay, and more recent revivals of these approaches, especially with regard to economic deprivation and Stark's theory of deviant places. 7.2 Be able to critique social disorganization theory. 7.3 Be familiar with anomie theory, including Merton's typology of logical adaptations to anomie, and the defense and extension of this approach. 7.4

  3. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Be acquainted with general strain theory. 7.5 Be familiar with subcultural theory, including Cohen's status frustration model (and evaluation), Miller's focal concerns (and evaluation), Cloward and Ohlin's differential opportunity theory (and evaluation) and Wolfgang and Ferracuti's subculture of violence perspective (and evaluation). 7.6 Appreciate how structural theories of crime fail to explain why females in poor urban areas have lower crime and delinquency rates than males in these same areas. 7.7

  4. Appreciate Emile Durkheim's contributions toward understanding deviance as a normal phenomenon and the influence of structural forces on individual behavior. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 7.1

  5. 7.1 Emile Durkheim 5

  6. Be familiar with the social disorganization and social ecology approaches, including the work of Park and Burgess, Shaw and McKay, and more recent revivals of these approaches, especially with regard to economic deprivation and Stark's theory of deviant places. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 7.2

  7. 7.2 The Development of Social Disorganization Theory Chicago School of Criminology W. I. Thomas & Florian Znaniecki Robert Park & Ernest Burgess Clifford Shaw & Henry Mckay

  8. 7.2 Zone V Zone IV Zone III Zone II Zone I Residential Zone Single-Family Dwellings Residential Hotels Bright-Light Area Apartment Houses Restricted Residential District Zone in Transition Ghetto Slum Little Sicily Chinatown VICE City Center Zone Of Working Class Second Immigrant Settlement Deutschland “Two-Flat” Area Roomers Underworld Commuter Zone Bungalow Section Concentric Zones

  9. 7.2 Low Socio-Economic Status Lack of Informal Social Control Social Disorganization Delinquency Residential Instability Cultural Transmission Ethnic Heterogeneity 9

  10. 7.2 Economic Deprivation Concentrated Disadvantage Social Disorganization

  11. 7.2 Kinds of Places Kinds of People vs.

  12. Be able to critique social disorganization theory. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 7.3

  13. 7.3 • Critiques of Social Disorganization Theory Heavy reliance on using official records for measuring crime and delinquency Imprecision in the concept of social disorganization Most people living in the “crime zones” are not offenders

  14. Be familiar with anomie theory, including Merton's typology of logical adaptations to anomie, and the defense and extension of this approach. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 7.4

  15. 7.4 Strain Theory

  16. 7.4 Merton’s Five Modes of Adaptation Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion

  17. 7.4 Defenses and Extensions of Merton’s Approach Social Class and Offending Supported for Serious Offenses Can Be Extended to Explain White-Collar Crime Institutional Anomie

  18. Be acquainted with general strain theory. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 7.5

  19. 7.5 General Strain Theory Failure to Achieve Positively Valued Goals STRAIN CRIME Removal of Positively Valued Stimuli Presentation of Noxious Stimuli

  20. Be familiar with subcultural theory, including Cohen's status frustration model (and evaluation), Miller's focal concerns (and evaluation), Cloward and Ohlin's differential opportunity theory (and evaluation) and Wolfgang and Ferracuti's subculture of violence perspective (and evaluation). Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 7.6

  21. 7.6 Reaction Formation Individual Deviance Cannot Obtain Middle Class Status Status Frustration and Reaction Formation Collective Solution: Create New Status System Opposite of Middle-Class Values Subcultural Values Emerge Gang Delinquency Lower/Working Class Youth

  22. 7.6 Walter Miller’s Focal Concerns Trouble Toughness Smartness Excitement Fate Autonomy

  23. 7.6 Differential Opportunity Theory Criminal Subculture Alienation Externalize Blame Access to Others with Same Problem Goals Conflict Subculture Gap Means Retreatist Subculture Lower/Working Class Youth

  24. 7.6 Subculture of Violence

  25. Appreciate how structural theories of crime fail to explain why females in poor urban areas have lower crime and delinquency rates than males in these same areas. Learning Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes 7.7

  26. 7.7 Social structure theories may explain only male offending Economic marginality

  27. CHAPTER SUMMARY • Appreciate Emile Durkheim's contributions toward understanding deviance as a normal phenomenon and the influence of structural forces on individual behavior. 7.1 Be familiar with the social disorganization and social ecology approaches, including the work of Park and Burgess, Shaw and McKay, and more recent revivals of these approaches, especially with regard to economic deprivation and Stark's theory of deviant places. 7.2 Be able to critique social disorganization theory. 7.3 Be familiar with anomie theory, including Merton's typology of logical adaptations to anomie, and the defense and extension of this approach. 7.4

  28. CHAPTER SUMMARY Be acquainted with general strain theory. 7.5 Be familiar with subcultural theory, including Cohen's status frustration model (and evaluation), Miller's focal concerns (and evaluation), Cloward and Ohlin's differential opportunity theory (and evaluation) and Wolfgang and Ferracuti's subculture of violence perspective (and evaluation). 7.6 Appreciate how structural theories of crime fail to explain why females in poor urban areas have lower crime and delinquency rates than males in these same areas. 7.7

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