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Emotions and Personality

Emotions and Personality

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Emotions and Personality

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  1. Emotionsand Personality • Section 04/09/07

  2. What are emotions? Feelings? Moods? Seconds Hours Days Time

  3. Theories of emotion What is the intuition?

  4. Theories of emotion What is the intuition?

  5. Theories of emotion Emotional invoking Stimuli What is the intuition?

  6. Theories of emotion Emotional Reaction What is the intuition?

  7. Theories of emotion James-Lange Theory

  8. Theories of emotion Reaction Emotion Event Interpret physiological response James-Lange Theory

  9. Theories of emotion Cannon-Bard theory

  10. Theories of emotion Event Reaction Emotion Cannon-Bard theory

  11. Theories of emotion Cognitive Theory

  12. Theories of emotion Reaction Emotion Event Interpret the context Cognitive Theory

  13. Theories of emotion The emergent synthesis

  14. Theories of emotion Reaction Emotion Event Interpretation The emergent synthesis

  15. Where do they come from: Nurture Culture and Language!! Anthropologists long argued that emotions are learned reactions dictated by our culture and language.

  16. Where do they come from: Nurture Schadenfreude(German): Enjoyment of other people’s misfortunes

  17. Where do they come from: Nurture Schadenfreude(German): Enjoyment of other people’s misfortunes Not exactly an emotion most in our culture would admit to.... AND we have no word for it.

  18. Where do they come from: Nurture Others Enjoyment of other people’s misfortunes Schadenfreude: Amae(Japanese): Dependence, immature/simple, spoiled Jung(Korean): Attachment, affection

  19. Where do they come from: Nature

  20. Where do they come from: Nature

  21. Are faces special? Ekman Ekman showed these pictures of posed actors to people in 21 different countries

  22. Are faces special? Ekman What emotion are these people experiencing?

  23. Are faces special? Ekman Everyone agreed on these: Happiness, Disgust, and Sadness

  24. Are faces special? Ekman And most agreed on these: Surprise (20/21) Anger (19/21) and Fear (18/21)

  25. Are faces special? Ekman Even people from a non literate culture with little or no previous contact with other societies identified with similar expressions

  26. Are faces special? • Demo: Emotions from facial expressions • You will see a number of faces, for each statement on your handout, pick the face that most clearly depicts the reaction you would expect in the situation described. You can choose the same face more than once.

  27. Are faces special?

  28. Are faces special? • Results: Discussion • Did specific faces tend to be associated with the basic emotions? • Which had less agreement? Why? • Were the other situations associated with particular faces?

  29. Are faces special? • Subject were directed to do two tasks while heart rate, skin temperature, and other autonomic measurements were monitored: • 1) Move facial muscles, with the help of a coach, into the prototypical emotion faces • 2) Imagine emotional events corresponding to the 6 emotion faces Eckman, Levensen, and Friesen 1983

  30. Are faces special? • Observed that Anger and Fear significantly increased heart rate in both tasks over Happiness, Surprise or Disgust • Similar autonomic responses to moving face muscles and to reliving emotional experience Eckman, Levensen, and Friesen 1983

  31. Are faces special? Demo: Trying out the facial feedback hypothesis Put on a happy face....

  32. Faces in development Campos and Sternberg 1981

  33. Faces in development Campos and Sternberg 1981

  34. Faces in development Campos and Sternberg 1981

  35. Faces in development Campos and Sternberg 1981

  36. Faces in development Campos and Sternberg 1981

  37. Faces in development Social Referencing: babies use mothers expression to decide to go across cliff Campos and Sternberg 1981

  38. Where in the brain? The Limbic Lobe

  39. Where in the brain? Associated with fear conditioning

  40. Where in the brain? • Prefrontal Cortex: • Emotional Memory (Damasio 1994) • Anticipation of emotional events (Roberts et al 2004) • Empathy (Beer et al 2003)

  41. Personality What is it?

  42. Personality How we tend to act can depend on who we are around

  43. Personality Personality traits Personality states

  44. Personality Personality: an explicit theory about how tend to act over time.

  45. Personality Is this a useful concept? Personality: an explicit theory about how tend to act over time.

  46. Personality DEMO!!!! • You will see 3 figures (A,B,C). I will read you statements about these three men • Decide which of three men the statement most likely applies to.

  47. Personality C B A

  48. Personality C B A Implicit personality theory about body shape and temperament

  49. Personality • If you wanted to describe personality, or create a taxonomy, where would you begin?

  50. Personality Language! • The idea was that the most salient and important personality characteristics have been encoded in language.