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Project NTP

Project NTP

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Project NTP

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  1. Project NTP Van Ortega Cayetano Shama Karu Sean McKeown Themistoklis Zacharatos Advisor: Dr. Woo Lee Plasma Specialist: Dr. Kurt Becker Powered by:

  2. Introduction to Plasma • Plasmas are everywhere around us. • Plasmas are an equilibrium of ions and electrons with in a confined space.

  3. Categories of Plasmas: • Different characteristics of plasmas are produced with various means of energy applications. • Various plasmas: • Homogeneous Plasma • Arc Discharge (lightning) • Thermal Plasma • Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) (fluorescent tubes) • Etc. • Few Variations among plasmas: • Electron density • Thermal energy • Energy consumption

  4. Cause of Variations: • Pressure • Voltage • Material of electrodes • Type of gas • Means of plasma production (plasma source)

  5. Production of Plasma: • A commonly used method of generating and sustaining NTP is through an electric field. • For instance, two parallel electrodes with an applied voltage

  6. Gas Flow Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography Pure He or Ar He/N2 or Ar/N2 He/Ar + N2 + CH3OH Schematic Diagram of the Plasma Reactor Dielectric Barrier Discharge at/above Atmospheric Pressure Glass Pipette Anode Cathode Plasma Region AC HV + Network 1 kV, 50 W 250 kHz Reference: Prof. Becker

  7. Summary of Experimental Results with Cold Plasma • Plasma Characteristics with He/Ar+N2 • Gas temperature of 350 – 380 K (measured) • Electron density of 1 – 5 x 10+10 cm-3 (estimated) • Avg. electron energy of 0.6 – 0.8 eV w/o high-energy tail • Experiments with He/Ar+N2+CH3OH • Gas temperature still in the 350 – 380 K range • Increase in CO, OH, and CH emissions, indicating a (partial) plasma-induced break-up of CH3OH • Very weak H emissions • May require more energetic electrons • Needs improvement for controlling methanol content Reference: Prof. Becker

  8. Flow-rate of pure Argon was 140cc/min Flow-rate of Ar/MeOH was 11.8cc/min Total flow-rate was 151.8cc/min Power in was approximately 150W Methanol concentration before entering plasma to be 1.29% Conclusion GC detector not sensitive enough unable to pick up such a small concentration Summary of Experiment Attempting to Crack Methanol from Pipette Design

  9. Goals: • Obtain a clear understanding of plasma • Breakdown Methane at a lower temperature than the current conventional methods using NTP • Improve on previous year

  10. Breakdown of Methane: Methane steam reforming: CH4 + 2H2O CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + H2O CO+ 3H2 Temperature: 600–1300K with Ni/Ca/Carbon – based catalyst Methane plasma reforming: CH4 + e- ???? Temperature ~ 300K

  11. Obtain a clear understanding of plasma: • Literature research • Consult with Physics department • Analyze experiments using NTP Plasma

  12. Experimental research on new plasma sources: • Design new source • Experiment with ratio of methane to argon flow • Determine optimum frequency and power for new source • Elemental analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC) • Literature research – analytical methods • GC performance check • GC automation

  13. Improvements on previous year: • Unclear assumptions towards calculations. • Equipment • Gas Chromatograph • System Leaks

  14. Gantt Chart - Overall

  15. Gantt Chart - October

  16. Why Fuel Cells? • Environmental Effects • Reduction of automobile greenhouse gas emissions by 50% • Cut down on smog and acid rain • Reduce noise pollution • Social Ramifications • Reduction of energy imports • Lower energy costs • Applications • Batteries • Transportation • Power Plants