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Water Accounts and Statistics (SEEA-Water and IRWS). 12 July 2011. UN Statistics Division. In general, water policy objectives can be grouped in the following four quadrants:. I. Improving drinking water and sanitation services. II. Managing water supply and demand. Water Security.
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Water Accounts and Statistics (SEEA-Water and IRWS) 12 July 2011 UN Statistics Division
In general, water policy objectives can be grouped in the following four quadrants: I. Improving drinking water and sanitation services II. Managing water supply and demand Water Security III. Mitigating water resources degradation/ Improving quality of water resources IV. Adapting to extreme hydro-meteorological events SEEA-Water and IRWS provide the concepts and methods for measuring progress towards the attainment of the objectives in each of the four quadrants, as well as higher level indicators linking water security with human well being. 2
The four quadrants in plain English: I. Nature provides water, but not the pipes II. Water is enough, if it is well managed Water Security III. Water cleanses, but cannot absorb all our wastes IV. Too much, too little, better be prepared Sustainable development requires good water and sanitation services for all, sharing water to maximize benefits, making sure we don’t exceed water’s carrying capacity, and getting ready for wet and dry years. The four quadrants are interconnected. 3
Quadrant I: Water and Sanitation Key information in this quadrant: I. Improving drinking water and sanitation services • Number of people with access to improved water and sanitation (MDG, from JMP) • Tariffs, taxes and transfers • All costs associated to the provision of the services • Investments in infrastructure and value of infrastructure • Volume of water abstracted, distributed and lost (unaccounted for water) Key indicators for this quadrant can be derived from the standardized information collected according to SEEA-Water and IRWS concepts and definitions. The indicators can therefore be consistent and comparable over time and space. 4
Quadrant II: Water Supply and Demand Key information in this quadrant: II. Managing water supply and demand • Renewable inland water resources • Water abstracted/consumed/returned by economic activities (including households). • Water productivity by economic activity • Trade off when allocating water • Investments in hydraulic infrastructure and value of existing infrastructure Key indicators for this quadrant can be derived from the standardized information collected according to SEEA-Water and IRWS concepts and definitions. The indicators can therefore be consistent and comparable over time and space. 5
Quadrant III: Water Quality and Water Health Key information in this quadrant: III. Mitigating water resources degradation/ Improving quality of water resources • Waterborne pollutants emitted by economic activity • Pollutants removed as a result of treatment • Water quality assessments in watercourses • Regulatory services provided by ecosystems in terms of assimilation of waterborne pollution (water purification and disease control) • Measures of the health of the water ecosystems Key indicators for this quadrant can be derived from the standardized information collected according to SEEA-Water and IRWS concepts and definitions. The indicators can therefore be consistent and comparable across time and space 6
Quadrant IV: Extreme Hydro-Meteorological Events Key information in this quadrant: IV. Adapting to extreme hydro-meteorological events • Water stocks and variations through time (surface and groundwater). • Investments for the storage and control of water • Disturbance prevention • Regulatory services provided by the ecosystems in terms of water flows Key indicators for this quadrant can be derived from the standardized information collected according to SEEA-Water and IRWS concepts and definitions. The indicators can therefore be consistent and comparable across time and space 7
Economic policies are monitored using indicators which are widely accepted and comparable between countries and through time. Most of the indicators are derived from the standard concepts and definitions prescribed in the System of National Accounts (SNA). • The first version of SNA was adopted in 1953. • The SNA has become a standard for policy analysis throughout the world. • There is a lot of capacity developed in the use of the SNA. The environmental–economic accounts were developed from the SNA concepts and definitions. The process to approve the system of environmental economic accounts is as strict as the one followed for the approval of SNA. 8
Recently, the United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) adopted the System of Environmental Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-Water) and the International Recommendations for Water Statistics (IRWS). The UNSC is a functional commission of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). It is the highest decision making body for international statistical activities, especially the setting of statistical standards,thedevelopment of concepts and methods and their implementation at the national and international level. SEEA-Water and IRWS are key ingredients for the development of information systems for the design and evaluation of water policies. 9
In 2007 the UNSC adopted the SEEA-Water. It covers all the physical and economic stocks and flows associated with water. It also covers emissions of pollutants and water quality. In 2010 the UNSC adopted the IRWS, designed to assist countries in the collection, compilation and dissemination of internationally comparable water statistics. The SEEA-Water and the IRWS provide the framework for developing indicators that are comparable through time and space. 10
More than fifty countries around the world are doing or planning to do water accounts. Countries doing significant progress are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Jordan, Mexico, Netherlands, Oman and South Africa, among others. 11
We speak the language of our particular discipline, our specific field of expertise. Inter-disciplinary work is sometimes similar to building the Babel tower. “When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in a rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.” “The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.” “The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be masterthat’s all.” Traducción libre This presentation concentrates on concepts, rather than words. It reviews the basic building blocks of water accounts from a system’s perspective.
Esperanto was developed hoping (Mr. Hope) to increase understanding between nations and cultures. Perhaps there is a need for practical approaches that promote common understanding with small training investments. The solution of environmental problems requires simple intuitive languages that can help build shared visions. Correct coding and standardization is also required.
The language of “stocks” and “flows” is useful to talk about dynamic processes. A sentence has a noun and a verb. The “stocks” are like the nouns and the “flows” are like the verbs. For example, by saving I increase money saved. The example above can be expressed as follows in mathematical terms. With these simple elements it is possible to describe the dynamics of complex systems.
The following example refers to a closed system (there are no clouds). The example tells us that by moving the energy stored is depleted, but at the same time the position is changed. The example above can be expressed as follows in mathematical terms. The equations shown above can be solved by integration of the function that describes the movement. Everything has to be expressed in the same measuring units.
In a similar way the transactions in a society can be described. Even though the example is very simple, more detail can be added to communicate useful information for decision making. All the flows and stocks have to be expressed in the same measuring units. One way of achieving this is using monetary units calculated with uniform criteria.
The following diagram shows a simplified natural water cycle. The diagram represents a closed system in which the mass has to be conserved. 17
The economy can be included in the water cycle. For simplicity not all the flows are shown. Due to the complexities associated with measuring the atmospheric and oceanic stocks, it is more practical to use an open system model (with clouds showing the boundaries)
The following diagram shows a simplified open model. The sea and atmosphere are left out. The diagram represents a closed system in which the mass has to be conserved. 19
The Inland Water Resources can be divided into surface water, groundwater and soil water. The diagram represents a closed system in which the mass has to be conserved. 20
All the flows and stocks can be presented in a “hypermatrix.” Each element in the “hypermatrix” has a corresponding concept in SEEA-Water 22
The following “hypermatrix” shows the relationships with IRWS. Each element in the “hypermatrix” has a corresponding element in the IRWS. 23
The following diagram shows a simplified natural water cycle. The diagram represents a closed system in which the mass has to be conserved. 24
Indicators can be derived from the “hypermatrix” Example: E.1.1 + E.1.2 Water stress = B.1 + C.1+B.2-C.2.1 Data provided by countries through the UNSD/UNEP questionnaire http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/Questionnaires/index1.htm The indicators are therefore comparable through space and time. 25
EECCA Indicators: Total water use: consider the MDG 7.5 indicator. It might be better to measure or estimate abstractions of water by agriculture (ISIC 1-3), water supply industry (ISIC 36), cooling for electricity (ISIC 35 without hydroelectricity) and all other industries. Water supply industry: consider abstractions per capita by water supply industry (ISIC 36), losses and the amount of water that is actually supplied to households. Population connected to wastewater treatment. Consider MDG 7.9 indicator, included in the International Recommendations for Water Statistics (IRWS), table 4.16 of data items. Wastewater treatment facilities. Consider waterborne gross emissions and the emissions removed by wastewater treatment facilities. Emissions can be measured in terms of BOD and COD, among others. Concentration of pollutants in seawater and sediments. Consider waterborne emissions discharged to the sea in terms of BOD and COD, among others. 26
Thank you! Ricardo Martinez-Lagunes (email@example.com)