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Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds. WHAT DO YOU THINK?. Why are Venus (too HOT), Mars ( too COLD ) and Earth (just right!) so different in their atmospheres? Could Mars have supported life long ago? How do we know? Is life known to exist on Mars today?.

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Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds


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    1. Chapter 7Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds

    2. WHAT DO YOU THINK? • Why are Venus (too HOT),Mars (too COLD) and Earth (just right!) so different in their atmospheres? • Could Mars have supported life long ago? How do we know? • Is life known to exist on Mars today?

    3. In this chapter you will discover… • Mercury, a Sun-scorched planet with a heavily cratered surface and a substantial iron core • Venus, perpetually shrouded in thick, poisonous clouds and mostly covered by gently rolling hills • Mars, a red, dusty planet that once had running water on its surface and may still have liquid water underground • The role of Carbon Dioxide as a insulator for Planetary climates.

    4. Essay Questions • Describe the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars. Why are these three atmospheres so different? • What does the Martian surface tell us about the planet's history, and future? • Describe the composition of the Moon, and its similarities and differences with our Earth.  How did the Moon form? How do we know?

    5. Mercurycraterssmooth plainscliffs

    6. Venusvolcanoesfew craters Radar view of a twin-peaked volcano

    7. Marssome cratersvolcanoesriverbeds?

    8. Mooncraterssmooth plains

    9. Earthvolcanoescratersmountainsriverbeds

    10. Why have the planets turned out so differently, even though they formed at the same time from the same materials?

    11. Earth as a Planet Our goals for learning: • Why is Earth geologically active? • What processes shape Earth’s surface? • How does Earth’s atmosphere affect the planet?

    12. Why is Earth geologically active?

    13. Earth’s Interior • Core: Highest density; nickel and iron • Mantle: Moderate density; silicon, oxygen, etc. • Crust: Lowest density; granite, basalt, etc.

    14. Terrestrial Planet Interiors • Applying what we have learned about Earth’s interior to other planets tells us what their interiors are probably like.

    15. Why do water and oil separate? • Water molecules repel oil molecules electrically. • Water is denser than oil, so oil floats on water. • Oil is more slippery than water, so it slides to the surface of the water. • Oil molecules are bigger than the spaces between water molecules.

    16. Why do water and oil separate? • Water molecules repel oil molecules electrically. • Water is denser than oil, so oil floats on water. • Oil is more slippery than water, so it slides to the surface of the water. • Oil molecules are bigger than the spaces between water molecules.

    17. Differentiation • Gravity pulls high-density material to center • Lower-density material rises to surface • Material ends up separated by density

    18. Thought Question What is necessary for differentiationto occur in a planet? • It must have metal androck in it. • It must be a mix of materials of different density. • Material inside must be able to flow. • All of the above. • b and c.

    19. Thought Question What is necessary for differentiation to occur in a planet? • It must have metal androck in it. • It must be a mix of materials of different density. • Material inside must be able to flow. • All of the above. • b and c.

    20. Lithosphere • A planet’s outer layer of cool, rigid rock is called the lithosphere. • It “floats” on the warmer, softer rock that lies beneath.

    21. Thought Question Do rocks s-t-r-e-t-c-h? • No—rock is rigid and cannot deform without breaking. • Yes—but only if it is molten rock. • Yes—rock under strain may slowly deform.

    22. Thought Question Do rocks s-t-r-e-t-c-h? • No—rock is rigid and cannot deform without breaking. • Yes—but only if it is molten rock. • Yes—rock under strain may slowly deform.

    23. Strength of Rock • Rock stretches when pulled slowly but breaks when pulled rapidly. • The gravity of a large world pulls slowly on its rocky content, shaping the world into a sphere.

    24. Heat Drives Geological Activity Convection: hot rock rises, cool rock falls. One convection cycle takes ~100 million years on Earth.

    25. Sources of Internal Heat • Gravitational potential energy of accreting planetesimals • Differentiation • Radioactivity

    26. Heating of Interior over Time • Accretion and differentiation when planets were young • Radioactive decay is most important heat source today

    27. Cooling of Interior • Convection • Conduction • Radiation

    28. Cooling of Interior • Convection transports heat as hot material rises and cool material falls • Conduction transfers heat from hot material to cool material • Radiation sends energy into space

    29. Thought Question What cools off faster? • A grande-size cup of Starbucks coffee • A teaspoon of cappuccino in the same cup

    30. Thought Question What cools off faster? • A grande-size cup of Starbucks coffee • A teaspoon of cappuccino in the same cup

    31. Thought Question What cools off faster? • A big terrestrial planet • A tiny terrestrial planet

    32. Thought Question What cools off faster? • A big terrestrial planet • A tiny terrestrial planet

    33. Role of Size • Smaller worlds cool off faster and harden earlier. • Moon and Mercury are now geologically “dead.”

    34. Surface Area to Volume Ratio • Heat content depends on volume. • Loss of heat through radiation depends on surface area. • Time to cool depends on surface area divided by volume: • Larger objects have a smaller ratio and cool more slowly.

    35. Planetary Magnetic Fields Moving charged particles create magnetic fields. A planet’s interior can create magnetic fields if - it is electrically conducting, & - it is circulating and/or rotating.

    36. Earth’s Magnetosphere Earth’s magnetic fields protects us from charged particles from the Sun. The charged particles can create aurorae (“Northern lights”).

    37. Thought Question If the planet core is cold, do you expect it to have magnetic fields? • Yes, refrigerator magnets are cold, and they have magnetic fields. • No, planetary magnetic fields are generated by moving charges around, and if the core is cold, nothing is moving.

    38. Thought Question If the planet core is cold, do you expect it to have magnetic fields? • Yes, refrigerator magnets are cold, and they have magnetic fields. • No, planetary magnetic fields are generated by moving charges around, and if the core is cold, nothing is moving.

    39. Special Topic:How do we know what’s inside a planet? • P waves push matter back and forth. • S waves shake matter side to side.

    40. Special Topic:How do we know what’s inside a planet? • P waves go through Earth’s core, but S waves do not. • We conclude that Earth’s core must have a liquid outer layer.

    41. What processes shape Earth’s surface?

    42. Geological Processes • Impact cratering • Impacts by asteroids or comets • Volcanism • Eruption of molten rock onto surface • Tectonics • Disruption of surface by internal stresses • Erosion • Changes made by wind, water, or ice

    43. Impact Cratering • Most cratering happened soon after the solar system formed. • Craters are about 10 times wider than objects that made them. • Small craters greatly outnumber large ones. The Production of a Crater

    44. Impact Craters Meteor Crater (Arizona) Tycho (Moon)

    45. Volcanism • Volcanism happens when molten rock (magma) finds a path through lithosphere to the surface. • Molten rock is called lava after it reaches the surface.

    46. Lava and Volcanoes Runny lava makes flat lava plains. Slightly thicker lava makes broad shield volcanoes. Thickest lava makes steep stratovolcanoes.

    47. Outgassing • Volcanism also releases gases from Earth’s interior into the atmosphere.

    48. Tectonics • Convection of the mantle creates stresses in the crust called tectonic forces. • Compression forces make mountain ranges. • A valley can form where the crust is pulled apart.

    49. Erosion • Erosion is a blanket term for weather-driven processes that break down or transport rock. • Processes that cause erosion include • Water/Ice movement by glaciers & rivers • Atmospheric Movement by wind, storms • Cyclic heating/cooling

    50. Erosion by Water • The Colorado River continues to carve the Grand Canyon.