1 / 24

Endocrine System Hormones

Endocrine System Hormones. Regulation. Why are hormones needed? chemical messages from one body part to another communication needed to coordinate whole body homeostasis & regulation metabolism growth development maturation reproduction. growth hormones. Regulation & Communication.

Télécharger la présentation

Endocrine System Hormones

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Endocrine System Hormones

  2. Regulation • Why are hormones needed? • chemical messages from one body part to another • communication needed to coordinate whole body • homeostasis & regulation • metabolism • growth • development • maturation • reproduction growth hormones

  3. Regulation & Communication • Animals rely on 2 systems for regulation • endocrine system • system of ductless glands • secrete chemical signals directly into blood • chemical travels to target tissue • slow, long-lasting response • nervous system • system of neurons • transmits “electrical” signal & release neurotransmitters to target tissue • fast, short-lasting response

  4. Regulation by chemical messengers • Neurotransmitters released by neurons • Hormones release by endocrine glands endocrine gland neurotransmitter axon hormone carried by blood receptor proteins receptor proteins target cell

  5. Classes of Hormones • Protein-based hormones • polypeptides • small proteins: insulin, ADH • glycoproteins • large proteins + carbohydrate: FSH, LH • amines • modified amino acids: epinephrine, melatonin • Lipid-based hormones • steroids • modified cholesterol: sex hormones, aldosterone insulin

  6. How do hormones act on target cells • Lipid-based hormones • hydrophobic & lipid-soluble • diffuse across membrane & enter cells • bind to receptor proteins in cytoplasm & nucleus • bind to DNA as transcription factors • Protein-based hormones • hydrophilic & not lipid soluble • can’t diffuse across membrane • receptor proteins in cell membrane • trigger secondary messenger pathway • activate internal cellular response • enzyme action, uptake or secretion of molecules…

  7. Action of lipid (steroid) hormones steroid hormone target cell blood S S 1 protein carrier S 2 cytoplasm receptor protein 4 transcriptionfactor S 3 DNA 5 mRNA plasma membrane protein nucleus ex: growth factors (hair, bone, muscle, gametes)

  8. Action of protein hormones signal-transduction pathway 1 signal plasma membrane protein hormone P activates ion channel or enzyme 2° messenger receptorprotein transduction ATP 2 activates enzyme secondary messengersystem activates enzyme cytoplasm response 3 produces an action target cell

  9. Signal Transduction pathway 1 protein hormone P activatesenzyme G protein cAMP 3 receptorprotein 2 ATP GTP secondary messengersystem activates enzyme 4 activates enzyme cytoplasm 5 produces an action

  10. adrenal gland Action of epinephrine (adrenalin) 1 epinephrine activatesadenylyl cyclase activatesG protein cAMP GDP receptor protein 3 ATP GTP 2 activates protein kinase-A 4 activates phosphorylase kinase cytoplasm releasedto blood activates glycogen phosphorylase 6 glycogen glucose 5 liver cell

  11. Benefits of a 2° messenger system Amplification! 1 signal Activated adenylyl cyclase receptor protein Not yet activated 2 amplification 4 amplification 3 cAMP 5 amplification GTP G protein protein kinase 6 amplification enzyme 7 amplification FAST response! product

  12. high low Maintaining homeostasis hormone 1 lowersbody condition gland specific body condition raisesbody condition gland Negative FeedbackModel hormone 2

  13. hypothalamus hypothalamus high low Nervous System Control Feedback Controlling Body Temperature nerve signals sweat dilates surfaceblood vessels body temperature (37°C) constricts surfaceblood vessels shiver nerve signals

  14. pancreas high liver low pancreas liver Endocrine System Control Feedback Regulation of Blood Sugar islets of Langerhans beta islet cells insulin body cells takeup sugar from blood liver storesglycogen reducesappetite blood sugar level (90mg/100ml) liver releasesglucose triggershunger islets of Langerhansalpha islet cells glucagon

  15. osmoreceptors inhypothalamus increasethirst nephron nephron high JuxtaGlomerularApparatus low nephron (JGA) adrenalgland Endocrine System Control Feedback Blood Osmolarity ADH increasedwaterreabsorption pituitary blood osmolarity blood pressure increasedwater & saltreabsorption renin aldosterone angiotensinogen angiotensin

  16. Nervous & Endocrine systems linked • Hypothalamus = “master nerve control center” • nervous system • receives information from nerves around body about internal conditions • regulates release of hormones from pituitary • Pituitary gland = “master gland” • endocrine system • secretes broad rangeof hormones regulating other glands hypothalamus posterior pituitary anterior

  17. tropic hormones hypothalamus thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) posterior pituitary Thyroid gland anterior pituitary Kidney tubules adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) oxytocin Muscles of uterus gonadotropic hormones: follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH) melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) growth hormone (GH) prolactin (PRL) Adrenal cortex Melanocyte in amphibian Mammary glands in mammals Bone and muscle Ovary Testis

  18. same gene family growthhormone birds fish amphibians fatmetabolism salt &waterbalance metamorphosis& maturation growth& development Homology in hormones What does this tell you about these hormones? How could these hormones have different effects? prolactin gene duplication? mammals milkproduction

  19. Regulating metabolism • Hypothalamus • TRH = TSH-releasing hormone • Anterior Pituitary • TSH = thyroid stimulating hormone • Thyroid • produces thyroxine hormones • metabolism & development • bone growth • mental development • metabolic use of energy • blood pressure & heart rate • muscle tone • digestion • reproduction tyrosine + iodine thyroxine

  20. Goiter Iodine deficiency causes thyroid to enlarge as it tries to produce thyroxine

  21.  kidney reabsorption of Ca++ thyroid Ca++ depositedin bones high  Ca++uptakein intestines low parathyroid  kidney reabsorption of Ca++ bones release Ca++ Endocrine System Control Feedback Regulation of Blood Calcium calcitonin blood calcium level(10 mg/100mL) activated Vitamin D parathyroid hormone (PTH)

  22. corpusluteum ovary yes corpusluteum no Feedback Female reproductive cycle eggmatures & is released(ovulation) builds up uterus lining estrogen progesterone FSH & LH fertilized egg(zygote) maintainsuterus lining pituitarygland hCG pregnancy progesterone GnRH corpus luteum breaks down progesterone drops menstruation hypothalamus maintainsuterus lining

  23. Effects of stress on a body Stress Nerve signals Hypothalamus Spinal cord (cross section) Releasing hormone Nerve cell Anterior pituitary Blood vessel adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine Nerve cell Adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids & glucocorticoids ACTH Adrenal gland Kidney CORTEX MEDULLA (A) SHORT-TERM STRESS RESPONSE (B) LONG-TERM STRESS RESPONSE Effects of mineralocorticoids: 1. Retention of sodium ions & water by kidneys 2. Increased blood volume & blood pressure Effects of glucocorticoids: 1. Proteins & fats broken down & converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose 2. Immune system suppressed Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine: 1. Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose 2. Increased blood pressure 3. Increased breathing rate 4. Increased metabolic rate 5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to increased alertness & decreased digestive & kidney activity

  24. Any Questions?? Robert Wadlow 1918-1940 8' 11"

More Related