WHEN IS THE ROAD WETTEST? • The FIRST FEW MINUTES of rainfall. • Therefore, it is the most dangerous because you can lose control of the vehicle.
PUMP THE BRAKES (Or) Apply steady Pressure to brakes AFTER DRIVING THROUGH THIS, WHAT SHOULD I DO?
ONE CAR LENGTH RULE 3-SECOND-PLUS RULE
Why do the car lengths increase while speed remains the same in certain driving conditions? 2 3 4 5 STOPPING DISTANCE INCREASES BECAUSE OF DECREASED FRICTION BETWEEN THE TIRES AND THE ROAD. 4 6 8 10 4 6 8 10 6 9 12 12 18
FRICTION & TRACTION… Friction Traction • The force that keeps each tire from sliding on the ground. • The friction that is created by the tires on the road. • Without traction you wouldn’t be able to • Steer • Change speeds
What’s the deal with traction? Where does friction occur while driving? What decreases TRACTION during driving? • Engine • Brakes • Tires & Road • Air resistance & Vehicle body • Rain • Loose gravel • Wet Leaves • Snow • Ice • Tires • Decreased tire tread • Not enough air in the tire • Too much air in the tires • Oil on the road
TIRES… • Tread • These are the grooves on the tire that help to create friction with the road as well as force water away from the car in wet conditions. • How do you know if your treads are good enough? • THE PENNY TEST
THE PENNY TEST… • Place a penny in the tread of your tire, upside down, if you can see any of Lincoln’s head then it is time for some new tires. • 1/16’’
SNOW ICE LAW: You must clear car of snow/ice before operating it.
ACTIVITY • GROUPS GIVEN DIFFERENT EMERGENCY SITUATIONS. • BRAINSTORM: • REASONS WHY THESE SITUATIONS COULD OCCUR. • WAYS YOU SHOULD HANDLE THIS SITUATION MOST EFFICIENTLY AND SAFELY.
HYDROPLANING At what speed does this happen? At what speed is it possible for the tires to COMPLETELY leave the road surface? > 35 MPH > 55 MPH
SKIDS What do you do? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYKdLiaonqM
EMERGENCY STOPS • Keep in mind the following if you must stop on a highway: • Signal & turn onto shoulder (if paved) at highway speed then begin to slow down • Unpaved shoulder (soft shoulder) -> begin to slow down first then signal and move to shoulder. • Turn on HAZARD lights (blinking rear lights) • Put another warning device at least 300 feet back. • Raise your hood • Use white handkerchief (tie to left side of car) if you need help. TOOL KIT
RUNNING OFF OF THE PAVEMENT • DON’T PANIC!! • Don’t turn back onto pavement right away. • -This could throw vehicle off balance and go • across roadway. • Ease off of gas pedal – regain control • Wait and gradually re-enter roadway. CAR FIRES (p.93 manual) Tips : from State farm insurance
PLUNGING INTO WATER • Closed windows and doors – float about 3-10 minutes. • ESCAPE &SELF RESCUE: • Seat belts – worn will save you from initial impact of crashing into water. • Open window to escape, while car is still floating on surface (can’t open door). • Power windows will short out – so open at once if car floating • Glass (side & rear windows) – break open with heavy, hard object. • Front engine vehicle – will sink nose-end first (like right picture) • Air pushed towards rear of car and roof – make way back there • Follow air bubbles (if under water) – reach surface b/c water makes people disoriented.
STALLING ON RAILROAD TRACKS Try to move the vehicle by pushing it off of the tracks (if automatic) If manual car – run the starter in low gear to try to get it to move. NO TIME!!! Train is coming -> GET OUT OF THERE. Get as far away from the tracks as possible.
VEHICLE FAILUREp.95 in manual) Brake failure – use parking brake 2. Power steering failure – when engine dies. Hold wheel firmly to maintain control. 3. Headlight failure – emergency stop on side of road. Try dimmer switch, which may help them go on again. If not – hazards, blinkers call for help. 4. Gas pedal problems – sticks, keep eyes on road and shift into neutral. Steer car off to side of road, shut engine off and call for help.
VEHICLE FAILURE(p.95 in manual) Hood Latch Failure – vehicle’s hood suddenly flies up, slow down immediately. Look under hood to try to see road or out of window (around hood). Use center line or lane markings to pull vehicle off of roadway asap. 6. Windshield Wiper Failure – slow down, hazards, pull over.