Diversity, Inclusivity & Civility: Developing & Enhancing Students' Cultural Competence Part I - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Diversity, Inclusivity & Civility: Developing & Enhancing Students' Cultural Competence Part I

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  1. Diversity, Inclusivity & Civility:Developing & Enhancing Students' Cultural CompetencePart I Tom Brown www.tbrownassociates.comtom@tbrownassociates.com

  2. BlinkMost of us make judgments inless than two seconds….Many of our conclusions are less rational than we think.

  3. In order to be effective in a diverse world?We must use our powers of observation….

  4. Count the FsFINISHED FILES ARE THE RE-SULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF-IC STUDIES COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.

  5. There are six…FINISHED FILES ARE THE RE-SULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF-IC STUDIES COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS. Being Aware, Conscious, and Paying Attention

  6. Perception: The process of making sense of the world around us…people, situations, etc. Reality from our point of view…. Our perceptions reinforce what we have been taught or expect, and they can shape our interactions with others different or similar to ourselves.

  7. PARIS IN THETHE SPRING

  8. Our perceptions reinforce what we have been taught or expect, and they can shape our interactions with others different or similar to ourselves.

  9. The U.S. college campus is one of the few places on earth where people from so many diverse backgrounds come together for a common purpose…

  10. Imagine a school where all kinds of people feel comfortable showing up, secure in the knowledge that they have a place they don’t have to defend every time they turn around, where they are encouraged to do their best, and are valued for it….Privilege, Power, and DifferenceAllan G. Johnson, 2006

  11. Workshop Overview Why does diversity matter? Does diversity support student learning and development? Why and how? What is cultural competence? Can cultural competence be developed? Addressing Some Diversity Issues Barriers to Engagement

  12. It’s not just the U.S.Schools with an inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes and creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all.UNESCO Salamanca Statement, 1994 Why does diversity matter?

  13. A view from beyond the academy…Whether we like it or not, many times we find ourselves segregated from other groups in schools, churches, and our own neighborhoods. A college campus is like opening the door to the entire world without traveling anywhere else.Why Does Diversity Matter at College Anyway?US News and World Report , August 12, 2009 Why does diversity matter?

  14. Pre-college experiences of US students* Public universities ** Private universities • >71%grew up in neighborhoods that were“mostly or completely white.” • +/-15% grew up in neighborhoods that were “mostly or completely non-white.” • 61*-65%** attended high schools that were “mostly or completely white.” • 13**-16%* attended high schools that were “mostly or completely non-white.” 2009 Freshman Survey

  15. It matters for institutionsTo keep pace in today's complex and competitive global arena, American higher education must retire old notions of educational exclusivity and embrace new models of inclusive excellence. “Rethinking Educational Practices to Make Excellence Inclusive,” Diversity & Democracy, Spring 2009 Why does diversity matter?

  16. It matters for studentsBy incorporating diverse content, perspectives, and approaches into the curriculum, faculty of all disciplines have found both pedagogical and curricular routes that strengthen scholarship and prepare students for engagement with today's complex world.“Teaching Diversity and Democracy Across the Disciplines: Who, What & How, Diversity & Democracy, Fall 2009 Why does diversity matter?

  17. The U.S. college campus is one of the few places on earth where people from so many diverse backgrounds come together for a common purpose… The other is the US workplace…

  18. Are Diversity and Learning Connected?

  19. Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes 1. Intellectual and Practical Skills 2. Personal and Social Responsibility 3. Integrative and Applied Learning American Association of Colleges & Universities http://www.aacu.org/value/

  20. Essential Liberal Learning OutcomesSelected examples 1. Intellectual and Practical Skills: inquiry and analysis; critical thinking; teamwork; problem solving 2. Personal and Social Responsibility: civic knowledge and engagement - local and global; intercultural knowledge and competence; ethical reasoning; foundations and skills for lifelong learning 3. Integrative and Applied Learning: integrative and applied learning AAC&U

  21. Do diversity experiences influence the development of critical thinking? Students' involvement in diversity experiences during college hadstatistically significant positive effects on their scores on an objective, standardized measure of critical thinking skills. Pascarella, Palmer, Moye, & Pierson, T. Journal of College Student Development, 2001

  22. Do diverse learning experiences benefit students? Diversity has positive effects on students’ cognitive development, satisfaction with the college experience, and leadership abilities. Students who interact with racially and ethnically diverse peers show greater intellectual growth and academic skills. Both in-class and out-of-class interactions and involvement with diverse peers foster critical thinking Benefits and Challenges of Diversity, Eve Fine, 2004

  23. Do diverse learning experiences benefit students? Diversity has positive effects on students’ cognitive development, satisfaction with the college experience, and leadership abilities. Students who interact with racially and ethnically diverse peers show greater intellectual growth and academic skills. Both in-class and out-of-class interactions and involvement with diverse peers foster critical thinking Benefits and Challenges of Diversity, Eve Fine, 2004

  24. Diversity and EducationSouthern Oregon University Diversity capitalizes on the unique experiences and common wisdom of all cultures by providing a fertile ground for contrast and comparison. Provides a view of other peoples so distinct from, yet similar to, ourselves that our own lives and experiences are given new perspective and meaning. Diversity is an enriching and necessary component of the total educational experience.

  25. How does increasing cultural competence support student learning, growth and development?

  26. Chickering’s Seven Vectors:Developmental Tasks for College Students Developing competence Managing emotions Moving through autonomy toward interdependence, Developing mature interpersonal relationships Establishing identity Developing purpose Developing integrity Chickering & Reisser, 1993

  27. Developing Competence Involves using one’s mind to build skill using analytical and comprehensive thought and thedevelopment of forming points of view in dealing with experiences in life. Encompass skills of listening, understanding, andcommunicating and functioning in different relationships. Chickering & Reisser, 1993

  28. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships Tolerance and appreciation of differences Acceptance is both intercultural and interpersonal.Openness for the understanding of a personfor what qualities they possess, instead of stereotyping, is an increase in tolerance. Chickering & Reisser, 1993

  29. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships Acceptance and appreciation of differences Acceptance is both intercultural and interpersonal. Openness for the understanding of a person for what qualities they possess, instead of stereotyping, is an increase in tolerance. Chickering & Reisser, 1993

  30. Developing Identity Comfort with body and appearance Comfort with gender and sexual orientation A sense of self in a social, historical, and cultural context Clarification of self-concept through roles and life-style Chickering & Reisser, 1993

  31. Developing Integrity Integrity for one’s beliefs, values, and purposes must be established. Also,thinking about others’ beliefs and points of view The willingness to preserve self-respect while monitoring behavior. Chickering & Reisser, 1993

  32. Are Diversity and Learning Connected?Questions? Comments?

  33. What is Cultural Competence A set of congruentknowledge, attitudes and behaviorsthat enable persons from one cultureto understand, communicate, operate and provide effective services to people of another culture. Multiple sources

  34. Concerns that the military as a whole was not prepared to conduct operations in a way that understands other cultures sparked an influx of research into the areas related to cross cultural competence. Developing Cultural Competence: A Matter of National Security Instances of stereotyping, racism, and abuses of power showcased the ways in which military members alienated the local populations [in places such as Iraq…]

  35. Cultural competence Cultural knowledge Cultural awareness Cultural skill Cultural encounters Cultural desire Campinha-Bacote, 1999

  36. Cross cultural competence Developing anawareness of one's own culture, existence, sensations, thoughts, and environment; Accepting and respecting cultural differences; Resisting judgmental attitudessuch as "different is not as good;" and Beingopen to cultural encounters; Beingcomfortable with cultural encounters. “The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence” Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Health Summer 2005

  37. Don’t ask students to get out of their comfort zone…. Challenge and support them to stretch their comfort zone.

  38. Cross Cultural Competence includes: Willingness to Engage Cognitive Flexibility & Openness Emotional Regulation Tolerance of Uncertainty Self- Efficacy Ethnocultural Empathy.

  39. Willingness to Engage Represents an individual’s willingness or persistence to stay engaged in making sense of unfamiliar social situations in dissimilar cultures.

  40. Cognitive Flexibility & Openness The ability to be flexiblein one’s approach is expected to allow an individual to solve a range of problems in complex and dynamic situations, which is tantamount to mission success Gompert, Lachow, & Perkins, 2005

  41. Tolerance of Uncertainty & Ambiguity A general disposition that broadly influences cognition, attitudes, and behavior. Low tolerance for ambiguity is characterized by rigidity, dichotomous thinking, authoritarianism, and ethnocentrism. Frenkel-Brunswik, in Abbe et al., 2007

  42. Self Efficacy A person with high self-efficacy may engage in more cross-cultural encounters and persist in encounters, whereas a person with low self-efficacy would harbor feelings of self-doubt and may be likely to withdraw prematurely from such encounters. Bandura, 1997; Ang, Van Dyne, Koh, & Ng, 2004; Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995

  43. Ethnocultural Empathy Does not feel irritated when people of different ethnic or cultural backgrounds speak their native language around them Not difficult to put themselves in the shoes of someone from another culture. Can easily understand what it would feel like to be a person from a different culture. When dealing with people of a different ethnicity or culture, understanding their viewpoint is a top priority. Thinks about the impact of jokes on people who are targeted.

  44. Developing competence is a process Cultural competence is not acquired quickly or casually, rather it requires an intentional examination of one’s thoughts and behaviors. The first step toward becoming culturally competent is realizing that you probably aren’t. “Cultural Competence in the Biology Classroom” Kimberly Tanner & Deborah Allen, 2007

  45. Developing competence is a process Denial:individuals refuse all interaction with other cultures and show no interest in discovering cultural differences. They may also act aggressively during cross cultural situations. Defense:individuals consider all other cultures to be inferior to their own culture and will constantly criticize behavior or thoughts by someone from another culture. Minimization:individuals start believing that all cultures share common values. They will also minimize any cultural differences by correcting people to match their expectations. Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Dr. Milton Bennett

  46. Developing competence is a process Acceptance:Individuals may still judge other cultures negatively but they will tend to recognize that cultures are different and they may become curious about cultural differences Adaptation:Individuals gain the ability to adapt their behavior by intentionally changing their own behavior or communication style. Integration:this stage, individuals instinctively change their behavior and communication style when interacting with other cultures. This stage tends to only be achieved by long term expatriates living and working abroad or Global Nomads. Dr. Milton Bennett

  47. Cross Cultural Competence includes: Having the capacity to: value diversity conduct self-assessment manage the dynamics of difference acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge adapt to the diversity and cultural contexts of individuals and communities served.

  48. Requires more than acquiring knowledge…. It is leveraging… knowledge, attitudes, and skills to engage and intervene appropriately…across cultures.Latino 101, Dr. Maria Hernandez, 2007 From Knowing to Doing…

  49. Cultural CompetenceQuestions? Comments?

  50. Attention to diversity perceived as divisiveand inhibiting community. A strategy to counter the divisive perceptions of diversity is to broaden our definition of diversity, in ways that highlight the intersectionality of race/ethnic, gender, class, religion, sexual orientation, within a framework of marginalization and justice. Marilyn Fernandez, Santa Clara University