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alkali metals n.
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DR. Althea rodriguez arenajo

DR. Althea rodriguez arenajo

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DR. Althea rodriguez arenajo

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  1. ALKALI METALS DR. Althea rodriguez arenajo

  2. LITHIUM • The name was taken from the Greek meaning “stone” because it was believed to be present only in stones • It was also thought that the salts of litium asssisted in dissolving stones in kidneys and gall bladder • Lithium is the lightest of all metals • It is preserved by coating with petrolatum

  3. LITHIUM • Lithium has silvery- white and though harder than Na and K, it is softer than Pb, Ca, and Sr • Its toughness permits it to be drawn into a wire • All lithium salts are colored crimson red in the bunsen flame • It gives a characteristic red line together with a less brilliant orange line in the spectrum

  4. LITHIUM • It ignites in air at 2000C and burns quietly with a very intense white light • Lithium soaps are not water- soluble and are water repellant • The soaps are used as lubricating greases • White ppt is formed with NaOH and Na2CO3

  5. LITHIUM Pharmacologic Action: • Behaves systematically like K • It is depressant to the nerve centers and circulation • The ion has diuretic action but has no advantages over K • Li ion is said to be somewhat less toxic to the heart tha K 5. Stimulates the vagus and a gastro enteritis may be produced

  6. LITHIUM Therapeutic uses: • Treatment of mania in mental hospitals Dosages: wt citrate or carbonate 40-60 mg/day –initial dose reduced by ½ - maintenace dose • Compared to barbiturates and tranquilizers, Li has no “drugged” effect

  7. LITHIUM TOXICITY: • LiCl as a subs for salt-free diets in cardiac patient patients • Also as seasoning agent in salt-free bread Symptoms inludes: weakness, drowsiness, loss of appetite, nausea, tremors and blurring of vision

  8. LITHIUM • Lithium Bromide NF - occurs as a white or pinkish-white granular powder or in colorless prismatic cystal - the salt is very deliquescent, goes into sol’n in its absorbed moisture Use: as sedative, it has central depressant properties

  9. SODIUM • Discovered by Sir Humphry Davy thru electrolysis of NaOH • Found in combined form • The sea water is more than 2/3 of the dissolved NaCl • Na is a soft metal, silvery-white when freshly cut • At ordinary temp it is like a wax and can be cut with a knife

  10. SODIUM • Sodium is a very active metal, stored under kerosene (inert) • In the air, rapidly covered with a dull gray coating which a mixture of hydroxide, oxide and carbonate • Produces intense yellow color to non-luminous flame • Produces golden-yellow ppt with cobalt uranyl acetate

  11. SODIUM • Shipment of Na is in air tight containers or solid in tank cars - the metal is allowed to solidify and remelted in the destination • It is stored either liquid or solid in huge tanks

  12. SODIUM Pharmacologic Action: • Capable of produc osmotic effect • Na ion is predominant in the extracellular fluid • K is found in the intracellular fluid • Osmotic gradient results when the conc of water mole on one side of the membrane exceeds the conc on the other

  13. It is believed that it is the Na ion which is unable to pass thru the membrane rather then K • Osmotic gradient is set up in one direction or another thru the cell wall, depending on the conc of the extracellular fluid to the electrolyte conc of the cell

  14. SODIUM 3 types of conc outside the cell: 1. Isotonic sol’ns – those that are of the same conc with the cell 2. Hypertonic sol’ns – those that are having a greater conc that of the body fluids or cell 3. Hypotonic sol’n s – those that are lower in conc than the cell

  15. SODIUM • If the extracellular sol’n is hypotonic, water molecules flow into the cell causing the cell to burst • If it is hypertonic, water flows out of the cell causing the cell to shrink • If the sodium ion conc is isotonic with the cell contents no osmotic gradient exist

  16. SODIUM • Na ion is impt in the distribution of body fluids • Clinical symptoms caused by abnormal sodium content in the body fluids: excessive vomiting, diarrhea or perspiration Why are cardiac patients with edematous should be in a low sodium diet:

  17. SODIUM • Edematous is a condition of excess fluid in the tissue • NaCl is a diuretic so it is given to get rid of the excess fluid • It is contraindicated since it would cause a hypertonic condition of the extracellular fluid • It would attract water from the intracellular fluid aggravating the • edematous

  18. SODIUM OFFICIAL COMPOUNDS OF SODIUM • Sodium Acetate • A good catalyst for some of the acetylation reactions of oragnic chemistry • A deep red color is formed with FeCl3 TS

  19. SODIUM Pharmacologic Action of the Acetate ion: • Introduction of the action into the body fluids • It causes a hypertonic condiiton of the extracellular fluid • This “salt effect” results in a diuretic action • It is used as diuretic in the

  20. SODIUM treatment of cystitis and disease of the urinary tract associated with highly acidic urine • Sodium Acetate Uses: diuretic, urinary alkalizer, systemic antacid or alkalizer Dose: 1.5 g

  21. SODIUM II. Sodium Bicarbonate • When heated, the salt loses water and CO2 and is converted to normal carbonate • Bicarbonate (also carbonate) salts liberates CO2 when treated with acids • The CO2 bubbles through the liquid which is termed as effervescense

  22. SODIUM Pharmacologic action of HCO3 : • As a component of buffer Most impt buffer system: a. Sodium Biphosphate b. Sodium Bicarb-Carbonic Acid • If an excess acid is liberated in the body, it is neutralized by some of the sod bicarb; the excess carbonic acid decomposes to water and CO2

  23. SODIUM • If an excess alkali arises in the body, it combines with carbonic acid to form bicarbonate, and more carbonic acid is formed from CO2 and water to restore the balance 2. In mediicne, as acid neutralizer a. To combat hyperacidity b. To combat systemic acidoses

  24. SODIUM Rebound acidity – is the production of too much acid after withdrawing sodium bicarbonate used to treat hyperacidity. The resulting illness is peptic ulcer. Increase the alkali reserve of the blood and replace sodium ion in cases of clinical dehydration in cases such as methyl alcohol poisoning

  25. SODIUM • Sodium Bicarbonate- Baking Soda Use: antacid Dose: 2 grams 4 X day • Sodium Biphosphate – Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate, Sodium Acid Phosphate Use: internal, to produce acid urine • When absorbed, it tends to disrupt the buffer system

  26. SODIUM • Use to activate certain antiseptic drugs particularly methenamine - folmaldehyde is antiseptic and it is liberated from methenamine in an acidic media - formaldehyde is used to treat cystitis and other urinary tract infection Dose: 0.6 g 4 X day

  27. SODIUM IV. Sodium Borate • This salt is not used internally Use: a. eye wash at 1-2% a. wet dressing for wounds • Borax – Sodium Tetraborate Use: softening water • N.F. Mouth Wash – conains sodium borate, glycerine and potassium bicarbonate

  28. SODIUM V. Sodium Bromide • It is the salt of a strong acid and a strong base, in solution it is not hydrolyzed Pharmacologic action of Bromides: • Reduce depression in epilepsy • With potassium, depressant to the heart • Depressant to the central nervous system

  29. SODIUM VI. Sodium Carbonate • Anhydrous form is known as Soda Ash • Dekahydrate is known as Sal Soda, Washing Soda or Soda Crystal • The dekahydrate effloresces Efflorescence – the loss of water from a compound at room temp

  30. SODIUM Pharmacologic Action of Carbonates: • Active anatcids 2 general groups of anatacids: • Systemic Alkalizer - by absorption from the GIT, they enter the blood and raise the level of alkaline reserve 2. Non-systemic alkalizers or anatacids

  31. SODIUM • arethose which do not alter the blood chemistry when administered orally a. Calcium and Magnesium carbonate b. Calcium and Magnesium Phosphate

  32. SODIUM • Sodium Chloride • Solar salt- is the purest known (99.63%) rae salt Sodium Chloride – Rock salt, Table Salt • Exerts the effect of sodium as well as the chloride ions • Deficiency of these ions in the body result in “salt hunger”

  33. SODIUM • 20% NaCl is used as injection for varicose veins of the lower extremeties • Dilute sol’n of NaCl is effective as blood plasma used in emergency treatment of shock from injuries Formulation: 1 tsp NaCl ½ tsp Na2 CO3

  34. SODIUM VIII. Sodium Fluoride • Aqueous sol’ns of the salt tend to corrode glass bottles and in should be stored in Pyrex ware • Acidification of its solution produces hydrofluoric acid which is poisonous • Used to etched glasses

  35. SODIUM Pharmacology of Fluorides: • Fluoride ion is toxic with a lethal dose of 4 grams - It forms insoluble calcium fluoride with the blood and is toxic on the enzymatic activity • NaF is a protoplasmic poison - it is also an excellent antiseptic, preservative and prevents fermentation

  36. SODIUM • Study showed that fluoride may be a key nutritional factor in the etiology of osteoporosis • Another study showed that admin of NaF to patients with idophatic osteoporosis or Paget’s diseases would cause the retention of calcium together with reduction of fecal and renal calcium output

  37. SODIUM • NaF and SnF2 is impt in dentistry in retarding or preventing dental caries • Higher tha 1ppm fluoride content in drinking water may cause mottling of the teeth • Sodium fluoroacetate (1080) is effective rodenticide • Sodium silicofluoride (1%) as spray to mothproof clothing

  38. SODIUM IX. Sodium Hydroxide • Very deliquescent that rapidly absorb moisture and CO2 from air • Rapidly destroy organic tissue, hence great care is needed • It is insoluble in alcohol, ether, and glycerine • NaOH is one of the strongest bases and should be stored in hard glass bottles

  39. SODIUM • Sodium Hydroxide ( Caustic Soda) - it is so caustic, no use in therapy - used in soap industry • Soda Lime (Calx Sodica) - mixture of calcium, sodium or potassium - used in metabolism tests, anesthesia, and oxygen therapy

  40. POTASSIUM • Sir H Davy – isolated the element from potash (K2 CO3) • Thenard & Gay-Lussac- establish the identity of K as a metal • A newly cut K is a silvery-white metal, the color changes rapidly to a bluish tinge • At ordinary temp, has a waxy consistency, kneaded with fingers and cut with a dull knife

  41. POTASSIUM • K ignites at high temp and vaporizes giving a violet flame • The metal is kept under kerosene, benzene, liquid petrolatum or those that dissolved in water and are free of O2 • K has shown to be slightly radioactive and is photosensitive • K imparts a violet color in the flame

  42. POTASSIUM Pharmacologic Action of K ion: • Ion in the intra cellular fluid • K deficiency (less than 14mg/100mL) may occur by: diarrhea, IV infusion lacking in K, burns, hemorrhage, diabetic coma, vomiting Hypopotassemia – arisen as a consequence of using thiazide diurectics

  43. POTASSIUM • Symptoms: gen weakness, depression of the heart, flaccid and feeble muscles, low blood pressure, pounding pulse, loud systolic precordial murmurs in th heart beat • Treated with pot chloride or acetate given orally that is, Darrow’s sol’n (chlorides of K and Na with sodium acetate)

  44. POTASSIUM • Potassium salts was introduced by Thomas Wllis in 1079 and among the best and effective of the osmotic diuretics • The larger the dose, the greater the response • The order of diuretic efficiency of pot salts: nitrate chloride bicarbonate = acetate = citrate

  45. POTASSIUM Impt Compds of K: • Potassium Acetate N.F. • Used mainly as diuretic and urinary alkalizer • The acetate ion functions as an antacid in the stomach • Acetates, same as carbonates and bicarbonates are systemic alkalizer

  46. POTASSIUM II. Potassium Bicarbonate USP Uses: a. Antacid for gastric hyperacidity b. Diuretic c. Electrolyte replenisher III. Potassium Bitartrate • It chars when heated and gives off inflammable vapors having the odor of burning sugar

  47. POTASSIUM • A silver mirror is formed with silver nitrate and ammonia • Obtained from the juice of grapes • Argol or crude tartar is collected when grape juice is allowed to ferment - This is composed of pot bitartrate and calcium tartrate

  48. POTASSIUM III. Potassium Bitartrate Common Names: Cream of Tartar, Acid Potassium Tartrate Use: cathartic Dose: 2 Gm • Replace talc as a dusting powder in surgery • It is more bacteriostatic and is more absorbed than talc

  49. POTASSIUM Pharmac Action of Tartrate ion: • The ion when retained in the intestines create a hypertonic sol’n • Osmosis increases the water content of the bowel and laxative action results • Tartar ion-containing salts are members of the group of saline cathartics

  50. POTASSIUM IV. Potassium Bromide NF • Employed central depressant because of the bromide ion content • In cases of mental excitement and all conditions arising: insomia, nervousness, etc • A good sedative but no anodyne effect