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GEOLOGIC TIME

GEOLOGIC TIME

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GEOLOGIC TIME

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  1. GEOLOGIC TIME Earth’s History Compressed:

  2. GEOLOGIC TIME I. Early Efforts of Dating the Age of the Earth

  3. GEOLOGIC TIME I. Early Efforts of Dating the Age of the Earth A. James Ussher (mid 1600's) 4004 B.C.

  4. I. Early Efforts of Dating the Age of the Earth B. Georges Buffon (mid 1700's) C. Lord Kelvin (late 1800's) 75,000 yr 20-40 m.y.

  5. I. Early Efforts of Dating the Age of the Earth D. Charles Walcott (1893) 75 m.y.

  6. Early Efforts of Dating the Age of the Earth E. John Joly (1899) 90 m.y.

  7. II. Constancy of Natural Laws

  8. II. Constancy of Natural Laws A. Catastrophism • Georges Cuvier (late 1700's)

  9. A. Catastrophism • Georges Cuvier (late 1700's) B. Uniformitarianism • James Hutton (late 1700's)

  10. III. Types of Geologic Dating • Relative Dating • Radiometric Dating

  11. III. Types of Geologic Dating A. Relative Dating 1. Law of Superposition

  12. III. Types of Geologic Dating A. Relative Dating 1. Law of Superposition 2. Law of Original Horizontality

  13. III. Types of Geologic Dating A. Relative Dating 1. Law of Superposition 2. Law of Original Horizontality 3. Law of Cross Cutting Relationships

  14. III. Types of Geologic Dating A. Relative Dating 1. Law of Superposition 2. Law of Original Horizontality 3. Law of Cross Cutting Relationships 4. Law of Faunal Succession

  15. III. Types of Geologic Dating A. Relative Dating 1. Law of Superposition 2. Law of Original Horizontality 3. Law of Cross Cutting Relationships 4. Law of Faunal Succession 5. Unconformities

  16. III. Types of Geologic Dating 5. Unconformities • Disconformity • Angular Unconformity • Non Conformity

  17. An Example……

  18. III. Types of Geologic Dating B. Radiometric Dating 1. Types of decay

  19. III. Types of Geologic Dating • alpha decay

  20. III. Types of Geologic Dating • alpha decay

  21. III. Types of Geologic Dating • beta decay

  22. III. Types of Geologic Dating • beta decay

  23. III. Types of Geologic Dating electron capture

  24. III. Types of Geologic Dating electron capture

  25. III. Types of Geologic Dating neutron capture N P

  26. III. Types of Geologic Dating B. Radiometric Dating 1. Types of decay • alpha decay • beta decay • electron capture • neutron capture

  27. An Example…. Parent U238

  28. An Example…. Parent U238 92 protons 146 neutrons

  29. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta = ? 92 protons 146 neutrons

  30. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 92 protons8 {lose 2 protons} + 8{lose 2 neutrons}

  31. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 8 {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons - 16 neutrons

  32. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 8 {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons - 16 neutrons

  33. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 6 (add 1 proton) 8 {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons - 16 neutrons

  34. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 6 (add 1 proton) {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons + 6 protons - 16 neutrons

  35. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 6 (add 1 proton) {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons + 6 protons = - 10 protons - 16 neutrons - 10 atomic number

  36. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 6 (add 1 proton) {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons + 6 protons = - 10 protons - 16 neutrons - 32 atomic mass- 10 atomic number

  37. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 6 (add 1 proton) {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons + 6 protons = - 10 protons - 16 neutrons - 32 atomic mass- 10 atomic number U238 – 32 = “X” 206

  38. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 6 (add 1 proton) {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons + 6 protons = - 10 protons - 16 neutrons - 32 atomic mass- 10 atomic number U238 – 32 = “X” 206 92 protons – 10 protons = 82 protons

  39. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta 8 {lose 2 protons} + 6 (add 1 proton) {lose 2 neutrons} - 16 protons + 6 protons = - 10 protons - 16 neutrons - 32 atomic mass- 10 atomic number U238 – 32 = “X” 206 92 protons – 10 protons = 82 protons “X” 206 with 82 protons

  40. U238 – 32 = “X” 206 92 protons – 10 protons = 82 protons

  41. An Example…. Parent U238 → 8 alpha + 6 beta = ? Pb206 Atomic # = 82

  42. III. Types of Geologic Dating B. Radiometric Dating 2. Half lifes, Parents, and Daughters

  43. III. Types of Geologic Dating B. Radiometric Dating 2. Half lifes, Parents, and Daughters half life (def) n : the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)

  44. C14 → N14 5730 years organic carbon

  45. III. Types of Geologic Dating B. Radiometric Dating 3. An example

  46. B. Carbon Dating