Provisions to combat discrimination The Indian constitution gives right to equality before the law to all the persons (Article 14 ) The Indian constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth. (Article 15 ) While providing equality of opportunity for all citizens (Article 16 )
*Caste based In central government funded higher education institutions, 22.5%of available seats are reserved for scheduled caste (Dalit) and Scheduled Tribe (Adivasi) students (15%) SC-13%, ST-7% NT-8%, DT/VJ – 3%, OBC-19%.
For SCs and STs The constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of vacancies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government / public sector In AIIMS 14% of seats are reserved for SCs 8% for STs In addition SC/ST students with only 50% scores are eligible. This ratio is followed even in parliament and all elections where few constituencies are earmarked for those from certain communities. In a few states like Tamil Nadu the percentage of reservation is 18% for SCs and 1% for STs. In Andhra Pradesh 25% of educational institutes and government jobs for BCs 15% for SCs 6% for STs
For women The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments (1992) give 33% representation to women in panchayats and nagarpalikas 30% headship to women in these bodies at the village block and district levels in rural areas and in towns and cities. 30% of seats are reserved for females in many institutions
Religion based The Tamil Nadu government has allotted 3.5% of seats each to Muslims and Christians Andhra Pradesh 4% reservations for Muslims. Kerala public services commission has a quota of 12% for Muslims. Religious minority status educational institutes also have 50% reservation for their particular religious.