The Scientists Mind Chapter 2
Three Scientists, Three Individuals • Carl Sagan-Astronomer, Pulitzer Prize winning author • Enriqueta Barrera-Geologist, Paleontologist • Evan B. Forde-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Researcher
Different Lives, Common Goals • Scientists have in common the scientist’s mind • A way of looking at the world with both logic and a sense of wonder
Qualities of Scientific Thinking • Scientists are observant • Scientists are creative • Scientists are skeptical • Evidence- material or data that can be measured to verify or test a prediction • Hypothesis-tentative explanation for an observation • Technology-Application of science to meet human needs
Scientific Methods of Inquiry • Creativity and logic play a large role in science
How Scientists Approach Questions • Some questions are answered by experimentation • Some questions are answered by observation • Scientific inquiry generally involves • Observing • Asking questions • Forming a hypothesis, • Gathering data • Testing the hypothesis • Sharing results
How Scientists Approach Quetsions • Scientific inquiry generally involves, observing, asking questions, forming a hypothesis, gathering data, testing the hypothesis, and sharing what has been learned. • Not every question can best be answered by doing an experiment.
Applying This Approach • The best way to figure out what was going on was to collect data. • A look at the approach taken by one scientists can illustrate how scientists approach questions.
Applying Scientific Inquiry • Observe- wells going dry • Question- was the new subdivision the cause • Experiment- by measuring the water table over time • Hypothesis-water table was recharged by spring runoff • Test hypothesis measuring water from mountain stream to river • Share results
Peer Review and Scientific Journals • Scientific journals differ from magazines because of peer review. • Several ideas have been advanced and disproved.
The Importance of Testing Ideas • Scientists need to be willing to ask questions and experiment. • Also, they need to be willing to change their minds about their hypothesis if the evidence they gather does not support it.
Scientific Theories and Laws • A theory is an explanation for observable events or facts for which no exception has been found. • Scientific laws are different from theories. • They are generalizations about how the natural world behaves under certain conditions.
Science and Society Scientific Literacy: Whats the Big Deal? • Science has a lot of impact on your daily life. • Learning can be easier when you’re younger, and that’s part of the reason your parents turn to you for help with technological devices around your house. • The rate of technological development isn’t likely to slow down.
Scientist's Tools • Scientists use a variety of tools in their inquiries. • For example, computers, and satellites, are complex and may cost billions of dollars.
Tools to Study the Earth and Ocean • In geology, which is the scientific study to Earth’s structure, a simple rock hammer is an important tool. • In the laboratory, geologists may use a crusher to pulverize a specimen for chemical analysis. • Geologists also use laser range finders for measuring distance, clinometers, magnetometers, and gravimeters.
Tools to Study the Sky and Stars • In the scientific study of weather and climate, meteorology, scientists use a variety of instruments. • Astronomy is the scientific study of the universe.
Tools with Many Uses • Not all of the earth scientist’s tools were developed for purely scientific reasons. • Two tools in particular have revolutionized earth science: the computer and the satellite. • Like computers, satellites are useful to earth scientists in all fields.