Re-Cap of the Hydrological Cycle Task 1: • What are the main processes in the hydrological cycle? 2. How is a balance maintained within the hydrological cycle?
The Upper Course The River Channel: Discharge is low at this stage. The river is fed from throughflow and groundflow. River energy is used for vertical erosion purposes – hydraulic action and corrosion Velocity is quick The load consists of pebbles, cobbles, stones, sands and gravel The Surrounding Land: V Shaped valley Sides are steep Physical weathering of the land – frost action – provides debris to be transported
The Middle Course The River Channel: The channel is wider at this point Discharge is higher The load of the river consists of silts and clay sized particles, which are often deposited at this stage, transportation of coarse materials at this stage. Due to the less steep land, lateral erosion occurs Velocity is still rapid, as the smooth, deep river channel reduces friction. The Surrounding Land; Sides are not as steep as upper course Lateral erosion broadens the valley floor creating a flood plain
The Lower Course The River Channel; The channel is now very broad and deep The rivers load is now only fine materials carried in suspension Deposition dominates here Erosion does however still occur Velocity is slow The Surrounding Land; Due to erosion, the land is very flat at this stage Large flood plain
Task 2: • Complete questions 2,3,5,6,8,9 and 10 of the worksheet. • Answer Question a – g on page 13 of the New Higher Geography textbook