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Leadership Two

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  1. Leadership Two Mission Command

  2. Scope • Concept & OODA Loop • Historical Context • Applying the Concept • Orders & Unity of Effort • Applying the Concept • Remaining Principles • Summary

  3. Scope • Concept & OODA Loop • Historical Context • Applying the Concept • Orders & Unity of Effort • Applying the Concept • Remaining Principles • Summary

  4. Tempo “1. (Music) Time, rapidity of movement; characteristic speed and rhythm of movement (waltz tempo). 2. (Figurative) Rate of motion or activity (the tempo of war is quickening). (Italian, from Latin tempus, time)” Oxford Concise Dictionary

  5. Orientation Observation Decision Action The OODA Loop

  6. Scope • Concept & OODA Loop • Historical Context • Applying the Concept • Orders & Unity of Effort • Applying the Concept • Remaining Principles • Summary

  7. ‘Match of the Day’

  8. Match of the Day 1 14th October 1806 PRUSSIA (Professional and hot favourites) Vs FRANCE (Upstart peasants – New Manager) Venue: Jena and Auerstadt Kick-off: 3.00pm

  9. Match of the Day 1 Meet the Personalities French Manager: Napoleon Bonaparte Prussian Manager: Scharnhorst

  10. Match of the Day 1 Meet the Personalities Post-Match Analyst & Pundit: Field Marshal Von Molke

  11. ‘We fought bravely enough, but not cleverly enough.’ Match of the Day 1 Result France: Won Prussia: None!

  12. Match of the Day 1 Findings of Scharnhorst’s ‘Board of Inquiry • The Prussian Army was run as a machine, with iron discipline, because the morale of the troops was low • Officers tried to counter chaos of battle by using scientific principles • Nobody took action without orders • Highly centralized and process dominated • It used ‘Befehltaktik’ – i.e. based on orders

  13. Match of the Day 1 Findings of Scharnhorst’s ‘Board of Inquiry • Napoleon was able to communicate very rapidly with his Marshals • He explained his intentions, as well as what he wanted them to do • He expected them to use their initiative • They did!!! • The result was a very high tempo – a very fast OODA loop

  14. Match of the Day 1 Reforms to the Prussian Army • The need for speed of decision making was recognized • Officers were trained and authorized to make real-time decisions at low level • Philosophy that it was better to act now with good intentions than to wait for the ‘right’ order • Orders from above could not possibly give the officer on the ground all the guidance he would need

  15. Match of the Day 1 Moltke’s Wisdom Father of ‘Auftragstaktik’ “Obedience is a principle, but the man stands above the principle.”

  16. Auftragstaktik • Senior commanders should not order more than was absolutely necessary but should ensure the goal was clear. • In case of doubt, subordinate commanders should seize the initiative

  17. Match of the Day 2 Franco-Prussian War 1870 Return (grudge) Match FRANCE Vs PRUSSIA Kick-off: 3.00pm

  18. Match of the Day 2 Result Prussia: Won France: None!

  19. Match of the Day 3 The Great War 1914 GERMANY (Ex Prussia) Vs COMBINED SERVICES (France/BEF) Kick-off: 3.00pm

  20. Match of the Day 3 Post-Match Report • Owing to muddy conditions and outstanding new goalkeeping device (machine guns), match stagnates and goes into extra time. • OODA Loop goes from ‘observation’ to ‘action’ and back again.

  21. Orientation Observation Decision Action Match of the Day 3 Post-Match Report • Owing to muddy conditions and outstanding new goalkeeping device (machine guns), match stagnates and goes into extra time. • OODA Loop goes from ‘observation’ to ‘action’ and back again.

  22. Match of the Day 3 Post-Match Report • Owing to muddy conditions and outstanding new goalkeeping device (machine guns), match stagnates and goes into extra time. • OODA Loop goes from ‘observation’ to ‘action’ and back again. • Auftragstaktik comes on as late substitute and almost wins the game.

  23. Match of the Day 4 Second World War 1939 ‘OLD FIRM’ GAME Venue: Various Kick-off: 3.00pm

  24. Match of the Day 4 Post-Match Report • Germany has outstanding first half using Auftragstaktik from the ‘off’. • Big wins away in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Holland, Belgium, France, etc., etc.. • Manager substitutes Befehltaktik just after half time. • Germany loses away in Russia (Stalingrad City). • Loses to new Combined Services (US/UK). • Loses at home trying to play 2 games at once.

  25. Cold War • Static posturing. • Everyone told what they had to do (Befehltaktik?). • Not ‘manoeuvre warfare.’ • Little need for Auftragstaktik. • But!!!! British Army on the Rhine is seriously outnumbered and so…….

  26. Field Marshal Bagnall KCB GCB CVO MC* • Introduces the principles of Auftragstaktik to UK Military doctrine (1986) and influences NATO doctrine. • Doctrine becomes known as Mission Command. • Great idea! • ….but nobody knows about it…

  27. Mission Command • Is designed to facilitate effective action under chaotic and confusing conditions. • Is based on trust. • Is intended to unify autonomy and alignment. • The ‘mechanics’ are as follows:

  28. Mission Command • The Commander: • Briefs his intent to 2 levels down. • Explains the limitations; eg, time, boundaries, must do, mustn’t do. • Allocates resources. • States WHAT is to be achieved, not HOW it is to be achieved. • Gives decision-making criteria.

  29. Mission Command • The Subordinate Commander: • Understands ‘my role in his plan’ 2 levels up. • Devises his own plan to play his part in achieving the commander’s intent. • Asks for more resources if needed, but offers back resources not needed. • Briefs his subordinates 2 levels down.

  30. 30

  31. Scope • Concept & OODA Loop • Historical Context • Applying the Concept • Orders & Unity of Effort • Applying the Concept • Remaining Principles • Summary

  32. Principles of Mission Command • Unity of effort

  33. Achieving Unity of Effort • The Commander’s Intent • Main and Supporting Efforts • Mission Statements

  34. Orders Format • Situation • Enemy Forces • Friendly Forces • Attachments and Detachments • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of Manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Coordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  35. Orders Format • Situation • Enemy Forces • Friendly Forces • Attachments and Detachments • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of Manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Coordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  36. “…One part of the order I did, however, draft myself - the intention. It is usually the shortest of all paragraphs, but it is always the most important, because it states - or it should - just what the commander intends to achieve. It is the one overriding expression of will by which every action by every commander and soldier in the army must be dominated.” Defeat Into Victory Field Marshal Slim 1944

  37. Commander’s Intent - Overview A succinct summary of how he proposes to achieve his purpose - articulated through effects, so subordinates understand the links between Main and Supporting Efforts. Also a description of how he thinks achieving his task will meet his given purpose (his unique contribution to his superior’s intent)

  38. Commander’s Intent - Overview A succinct summary of how he proposes to achieve his purpose - articulated through effects, so subordinates understand the links between Main and Supporting Efforts. Also a description of how he thinks achieving his task will meet his given purpose (his unique contribution to his superior’s intent)

  39. Orders Format • Situation • Enemy Forces • Friendly Forces • Attachments and Detachments • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of Manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Coordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  40. Main Effort A concentration of forces or means, in a particular area, where a commander seeks to bring about a decision

  41. Orders Format • Situation • Enemy Forces • Friendly Forces • Attachments and Detachments • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of Manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Coordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  42. Mission Statements Task(s) + Purpose What Why How

  43. Caesar Maximus Maridius Archers & artillery Roman Infantry Roman Cavalry

  44. Mission Statements Own Mission: Task(s) + Purpose Subordinate 1: Task + Purpose Subordinate 2: Task + Purpose Subordinate 3: Task + Purpose The missions assigned to subordinates, together, fulfil the mission assigned to the commander

  45. There is a common thread to the subordinates’ purposes, so that when taken together they fulfil the Commander’s mission Mission Statements Own Mission: Task(s) + Purpose Subordinate 1: Task + Purpose Subordinate 2: Task + Purpose Subordinate 3: Task + Purpose

  46. Caesar Maximus Maridius Supporting Effort Supporting Effort Main Effort Archers & artillery Roman Infantry Roman Cavalry T: pacify the German tribes P: bring peace to the Empire’s Northern borders T: defeat militant German tribes P: bring peace to the northern borders T: force German forces out of the woods P: enable infantry to engage the enemy in the open T: kill German tribal leader and his bodyguard P: cause the culmination of the militant tribes T: fix enemy forces in the open P: enable Cavalry, on the main effort, to attack the enemy from the rear

  47. Achieving Unity of Effort • The Commander’s Intent • Main and Supporting Efforts • Mission Statements

  48. Russell Crowe’s Orders to his Legions (1) • Mission:defeat militant German tribes in order to bring peace to the northern borders • Intent:We willforce the enemy out of the forestso wecanfix him in the open.Once he is fixed, we will surprise him by anattack in the rear,striking todestroy his leadership- thedecisive elementof the operation. Once his leadership is destroyed, I believe we willbreak the will of the German tribes,thus eventuallybring peaceto the Northern borders

  49. Russell Crowe’s Orders to his Legions (2) • Main Effort: killing of enemy leadership by the cavalry • Scheme of Manoeuvre: Cavalry preparatory move to FUP in cover, signal once in position. Artillery and archers then force enemy out of the forest using fire. Infantry advance into open ground, to lure the enemy further into the open, and then fix him. Cavalry then strike from the forest into the enemy’s rear, gaining shock and surprise, to kill the enemy leadership. Once enemy is reduced to a disorganised rabble, massacre as many as possible. Enslave the rest.