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String Theory The Theory of Everything. Ryan Tiraschi. Goals. A brief introduction to String Theory Background Development Future User friendly No math! Easy to understand. Overview. The problem between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics String Theory How it helps How it works

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## String Theory The Theory of Everything

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**String TheoryThe Theory of Everything**Ryan Tiraschi**Goals**• A brief introduction to String Theory • Background • Development • Future • User friendly • No math! • Easy to understand**Overview**• The problem between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics • String Theory • How it helps • How it works • Its problems • Where are we today? • Proving String Theory**Theory of General Relativity**• Newton’s ideas on gravity - instant • Einstein refutes Newton • Nothing travels faster than light • Einstein solves this problem**Quantum Mechanics**• Recall chemistry • Random and chaotic • Up? Down? Left? Right? Before? After? • Previous theories can’t predict motion inside the atoms**The Problem**• Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity do not work together • What about: • before the Big Bang? • black holes? • Neither theory can predict what happens**String Theory to the Rescue**• Possible theory for everything • “Holy Grail” • Problems • Current and future potential**How Does String Theory Work?**• Make up everything • Strings of energy, not spheres • Resonate at different frequencies • Incredibly small • “Smoothes out” QM world**The Problems of String Theory**• Probably can never be proven • Physics or Philosophy? • Multiple dimensions • Five different versions of String Theory • Open strings, closed strings, dimensions**Multiple Dimensions**• We know of a 3+1 D world • x, y, z, and time • Sting Theory needs at least an extra six • Extra D could exist, we just can’t see them**Five Versions?**• Problem: if one theory, why five different ones? • Which one describes ours? • Ed Witten solves the problem**Where are We Now?**• M-Theory • Requires 11D • Allows strings to expand into membranes • “Branes” • With enough energy, they can become huge**Implications of M-Theory**• Parallel Universes • Even right next to us • Describes why gravity is weak • Closed loop string • Pool table example • Perhaps explains the Big Bang?**Proving String Theory Today**• We can’t see small strings, perhaps we can see the evidence? • Fermilab and CERN • Searching for Gravitrons • Trying to prove Supersymmetry**Conclusions**• String Theory has the potential to describe everything. • Even though it has not been proven true, it seems too mathematically elegant to be wrong. • No one knows just how close we are.**Thank You**Questions?**References**• Greene, Brian (1999), The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory, 1st edition (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.). • Kaku, Michio (1999), Introduction to Superstrings and M-Theory, 2nd edition (New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.). • Magueijo, João (2003), Faster than the Speed of Light: The Story of a Scientific Speculation (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing).**Graphics**• http://superstringtheory.com/cosmo/cosmo5a.html • string theory equation • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/elegant/program.html • general relativity , quantum mechanics, strings • http://www.inspi.net/best-of-hubble-telescope/slides/2002-30.html • black hole • http://www.thocp.net/timeline/0000.htm • big bang • http://abu9.blogspot.com/2004/11/string-theory.html • roll of string • http://www.harvardmagazine.com/on-line/110393.html • six dimensions • http://www.shoppinganimal.com/buy-homeware-online/HOT-DEALS.html • dressing room • http://www.sciencecartoonsplus.com/gallery.htm • cartoon • http://library.thinkquest.org/04apr/01330/media/gallery.htm • membrane • http://www.deadbus.org/archives/2004/05/ • loaf of bread • http://www.particle.kth.se/~fmi/kurs/PhysicsSimulation/Lectures/06B/atlas1.html • collision graphic

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