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  1. website: www.VagabondGeology.com Ancient Pathways Ancient Peoples Week 2: into Africa Week 1: beginning in East Africa

  2. website: www.VagabondGeology.com SESSION 2 - Stone Age Timeline - Ages of Human Development - South Africa Week 6: into Americas Week 5: across Beringia Week 4: into Asia Week 3: into Europe Across Africa Week 2: into Africa Week 1: beginning in East Africa

  3. The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) 2.5M – ‘Little Foot’, ‘Ms Ples’ 1.8M – ‘Nutcracker Man’ 300,000 YBP 1.7M – ‘Handy Man’ 2.5 MILLION 1.4 MILLION 2 MILLION 3.5M – footprints our family tree . . . . EARLY STONE AGE – stone tools, fire Week 1 TANZANIA - Laetoli Site - Oldupai Gorge • this week • SOUTH AFRICA • Cradle of Humankind Australopithecus Paranthropus Homo Genus sapiens

  4. The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) Homo homo Paranthropus STONE AGE 2.5M YBP 4,000 YBP ‘Nutcracker Man’ (boisei) Australopithecus this week SOUTH AFRICA Week 1 TANZANIA - Laetoli Site - Oldupai Gorge

  5. Australopithecus africanus The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) homo Let’s go to South Africa! 2.5 million YBP STONE AGE Australopithecus africanus this week SOUTH AFRICA - Cradle of Humankind

  6. Australopithecus africanus The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) homo Let’s go to South Africa! 2.5 million YBP STONE AGE TANZANIA this week SOUTH AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA - Cradle of Humankind

  7. Australopithecus africanus The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) SOUTH AFRICA

  8. Australopithecus africanus Cradle of Humankind designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999 - Protected area covers 182 sq miles in 2 provinces PRETORIA - Area of limestone caves Johannesburg Sterkfontein Caves

  9. Australopithecus africanus - More than 800 early hominid fossils 2M to 3M years old Cradle of Humankind designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999 - Protected area covers 182 sq miles in 2 provinces - Area of limestone caves Sterkfontein Caves

  10. Australopithecus africanus - More than 800 early hominid fossils 2M to 3M years old Sterkfontein Caves Fossil Site Fossil Site Fossil Site Fossil Site Fossil Site

  11. Australopithecus africanus - More than 800 early hominid fossils 2M to 3M years old Sterkfontain Caves Fossil Site Fossil Site Fossil Site Fossil Site Fossil Site

  12. Australopithecus africanus - More than 800 early hominid fossils 2M to 3M years old - 1800’s: 1st fossils unearthed by miners digging for lime - 1936: professors at U. of Witwatersrand began excavations - 1947: Dr. Robert Broom found a skull over 2M years old

  13. Australopithecus africanus - originally classified as ‘plesanthropus Transvaalensis’ . . . . thus ‘Mrs. Ples’ • later reclassified as • Australopithecus africanus

  14. Australopithecus africanus - originally classified as ‘plesanthropus Transvaalensis’ . . . . thus ‘Mrs. Ples’ • later reclassified as • Australopithecus africanus

  15. Australopithecus africanus • Dr Broom identified this • fossil as an adult female • based on: • body size • size of teeth cavity • later x-rays of the teeth • cavities showed emerging • permanent teeth at death; • predicted a sub-adult male • - 2012 evaluation by Stony • Brook University using 3D • virtual reconstruction of the • roots of the teeth found • evidence of a adult female - originally classified as ‘plesanthropus Transvaalensis’ . . . . thus ‘Mrs. Ples’ ? Ms Ples! • later reclassified as • Australopithecus africanus

  16. Australopithecus africanus 47 years later, in 1997 . . . . - at the Sterkfontein archives - originally classified as ‘plesanthropus Transvaalensis’ . . . . thus ‘Mrs. Ples’ Ms Ples! • later reclassified as • Australopithecus africanus

  17. Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus africanus 47 years later, in 1997 . . . . • at the Sterkfontein archives • Dr. Ron Clarke, looking in a box • of fossils, came across four • foot-bone fossils • He recognized these fossils • as probably from the same foot • 3 years later, in a box of monkey • fossils, he came across more • bones from the same body • Because of the small foot size, • he called this find ‘Little Foot’

  18. Australopithecus africanus • Slight divergence of the big toe • indicates an early species • of Australopithecus, living • between 3M &4M YBP 47 years later, in 1997 . . . . • at the Sterkfontein archives • Dr. Ron Clarke, looking in a box • of fossils, came across four • foot-bone fossils • He recognized these fossils • as probably from the same foot • By 1998, Clarke had excavated • the skull, jaw, & other limbs of • ‘Little Foot’ in Sterkfontein Cave • 3 years later, in a box of monkey • fossils, he came across more • bones from the same body • Because of the small foot size, • he called this find ‘Little Foot’

  19. Australopithecus africanus • Slight divergence of the big toe • indicates an early species • of Australopithecus, living • between 3M &4M YBP Where was he found? • By 1998, Clarke had excavated • the skull, jaw, & other limbs of • ‘Little Foot’ in Sterkfontein Cave ‘Little Foot’

  20. Australopithecus africanus Where was he found?

  21. Australopithecus africanus • 3M YBP ‘Little Foot’ fell through a brush-covered cave shaft • falling at least 30’, he fractured many bones and died • rocks & sediments covered his body and calcified • the skeleton was preserved, embedded in rock “this almost complete skeleton is one of the earliest, most complete, & most important hominid discoveries in paleoanthropology” Why?

  22. Australopithecus africanus . . . fossil remains are more like human remains than are Australopithecus afarensis: 1) more human-like cranium; larger brain 2) more human-like facial features H. sapiens (Cro-Magnon) “this almost complete skeleton is one of the earliest, most complete, & most important hominid discoveries in paleoanthropology” A. africanus H. habilis HOMO GENUS Why?

  23. Australopithecus africanus . . . fossil remains are more like human remains than are Australopithecus afarensis: 1) more human-like cranium; larger brain 2) more human-like facial features EXTINCTION: 2M YBP - global cooling - competition with Homo genus . . . may be a direct ancestor to modern humans . . H. sapiens (Cro-Magnon) A. africanus H. habilis HOMO GENUS Why?

  24. The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) Two genera that are now extinct . . . homo Paranthropus ‘Nutcracker Man’ (boisei) ‘Little Foot’ ‘Ms Ples’ (africanus) Australopithecus How dispersed were these two genera?

  25. The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) homo Paranthropus Australopithecus How dispersed were these two genera?

  26. How dispersed were these two genera? A. Afarensis A. Africanus P. Boisei Ms Ples - 2.5M Little Foot - 3M Footprints – 3.5M Nutcracker Man- 1.8M TANZANIA SOUTH AFRICA

  27. How dispersed were these two genera? Fossil sites & spread of Genera . . . . Australopithcus & Paranthropus So who left Africa??? A. Afarensis A. Afarensis A. Africanus P. Boisei P. Boisei Ms Ples - 2.5M Little Foot - 3M Footprints – 3.5M Nutcracker Man- 1.8M TANZANIA Neither genus spread beyond Africa!?! SOUTH AFRICA

  28. Fossil sites & spread of Genera . . . . Australopithcus & Paranthropus The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) So who left Africa??? homo Paranthropus ‘Nutcracker Man’ (boisei) A. Afarensis P. Boisei ‘Little Foot’ ‘Ms Ples’ (africanus) Australopithecus Neither genus spread beyond Africa!?!

  29. The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) So who left Africa??? Homo Genus homo X Paranthropus X ‘Nutcracker Man’ (boisei) ‘Little Foot’ ‘Ms Ples’ (africanus) footprints (afarensis) Australopithecus

  30. Homo Genus The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) So who left Africa??? Homo Genus Homo homo

  31. Homo Genus 2010 . . . Homo homo Remember last week? Until 2010, earliest known species of Homo Genus 2010 . . .

  32. Homo Genus 2010 . . . Homo homo - Anthropologist Darren Curnoe proposed a new Homo species ? - The fossils, discovered decades earlier at Sterkfontain, were originally classified as early H. Habilis or late Australopithicus - ‘morphologically too distinct’ to fit these other categories New species: Homo gautengensis?? Homo gautengensis?? named for the S.A. Province

  33. Homo Genus The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) Homo homo ? Homo gautengensis??

  34. Homo Genus The Stone Age: 2.5 million to 4000 YBP (years before present) EUROPE AFRICA AFRICA ASIA AMER. M YBP sapien 0.1M neanderthal rhodesien 100,000 YBP erectus antecessor 2M YBP 0.7M 1.3M 1.5M 0.1M 1.8M 0.5M ‘Handy-man’ (habilis) ergaster Homo gautengensis??

  35. Homo Genus NEXT WEEK . . . EUROPE AFRICA ASIA AMER. Meet a French Homo sapien! sapien 100,000 YBP Abri Cro-Magnon Man Week 3: into Europe Week 2: into Africa Week 1: beginning in East Africa

  36. REFERENCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_evolution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Age http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleolithic http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cradle_of_Humankind http://www.sa-venues.com/attractionsga/cradle-of-humankind.htm http://www.sa-venues.com/maps/gauteng_cradle_of_humankind.htm http://geology.com/world/south-africa-satellite-image.shtml http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/East_Africa.html http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Africa/South-Africa http://www.sa-venues.com/maps/gauteng_magaliesberg.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mrs._Ples http://www.cradleofhumankind.co.za/exploretoday/Pages/_SterkfonteinCaves.aspx http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/rbroom.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sterkfontein http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Foot http://www.panoramio.com/photo/62201978 http://www.artlink.co.za/news_article.htm?contentID=28164 http://www.maropeng.co.za/index.php/exhibition_guide/sterkfontein/little_foot/ http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/june-2011/article/ancient-nutcracker-man-had-no-taste-for-nuts http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_evolution http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9989-timeline-human-evolution.html http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0018442X10000727 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100408105147.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_gautengensis Curnoe, D., A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. Nov.), HOMO-J. Comp. Hum. Biol., 61:151–177, 2010; pp 171–172 http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo/homo_1.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal

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